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Gaelic football , Irish Gaelic , Gaelic language. Of or relating to the Gaels or their culture or languages. Any of the Goidelic languages, especially: Peoples of, denoting, or relating to the Celtic people of Ireland, Scotland, or the Isle of Man or their language or customs.
Languages of, denoting, or relating to the Celtic people of Ireland, Scotland, or the Isle of Man or their language or customs.
Placename of, denoting, or relating to the Celtic people of Ireland, Scotland, or the Isle of Man or their language or customs. Switch to new thesaurus.
Celtic , Celtic language - a branch of the Indo-European languages that judging from inscriptions and place names was spread widely over Europe in the pre-Christian era.
Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there.
By the midth century what eventually came to be called Scots at that time termed Inglis emerged as the official language of government and law.
Scottish Gaelic has a rich oral beul-aithris and written tradition, having been the language of the bardic culture of the Highland clans for many years.
However, the language was suppressed by the Scottish and later British states, especially after the Battle of Culloden in , during the Highland Clearances , and by the exclusion of Scottish Gaelic from the educational system.
Even before then, charitable schools operated by the Society in Scotland for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge SSPCK used instructional methods designed to suppress the language in favour of English and corporal punishment against students using Gaelic.
Their primary purpose was to teach Gaels literacy in their own language, with emphasis on being able to read the Bible. The translation of the entire Bible was completed in Dialects of Lowland Gaelic have been defunct since the 18th century.
Gaelic in the Eastern and Southern Scottish Highlands, although alive in the mid-twentieth century, is now largely defunct. Although modern Scottish Gaelic is dominated by the dialects of the Outer Hebrides and Isle of Skye, there remain some speakers of the Inner Hebridean dialects of Tiree and Islay, and even a few elderly native speakers from Highland areas including Wester Ross, northwest Sutherland, Lochaber, and Argyll.
Dialects on both sides of the Straits of Moyle the North Channel linking Scottish Gaelic with Irish are now extinct, though native speakers were still to be found on the Mull of Kintyre , in Rathlin and in North East Ireland as late as the midth century.
Records of their speech show that Irish and Scottish Gaelic existed in a dialect chain with no clear language boundary. The — figures are census data quoted by MacAulay.
The total population figure comes from table KSSC. Note that the numbers of Gaelic speakers relate to the numbers aged 3 and over, and the percentages are calculated using those and the number of the total population aged 3 and over.
The main stronghold of the language continues to be the Outer Hebrides Na h-Eileanan Siar , where the overall proportion of speakers is Important pockets of the language also exist in the Highlands 5.
Gaelic continues to decline in its traditional heartland. The drop in Stornoway , the largest parish in the Western Isles by population, was especially acute, from The islands in the Inner Hebrides with significant percentages of Gaelic speakers are Tiree During the same period, Gaelic medium education in Scotland has grown, with 3, pupils being educated in a Gaelic-immersion environment in , up from 2, pupils in Gaelic has long suffered from its lack of use in educational and administrative contexts and was long suppressed.
Along with Irish and Welsh, Gaelic is designated under Part III of the Charter, which requires the UK Government to take a range of concrete measures in the fields of education, justice, public administration, broadcasting and culture.
It has not received the same degree of official recognition from the UK Government as Welsh. With the advent of devolution , however, Scottish matters have begun to receive greater attention, and it achieved a degree of official recognition when the Gaelic Language Scotland Act was enacted by the Scottish Parliament on 21 April The key provisions of the Act are: It is not clear what the legal force of this wording is.
The Act was passed by the Scottish Parliament unanimously, with support from all sectors of the Scottish political spectrum, on 21 April Under the provisions of the Act, it will ultimately fall to BnG to secure the status of the Gaelic language as an official language of Scotland.
However, given there are no longer any monolingual Gaelic speakers,  following an appeal in the court case of Taylor v Haughney , involving the status of Gaelic in judicial proceedings, the High Court ruled against a general right to use Gaelic in court proceedings.
The Scottish Qualifications Authority offer two streams of Gaelic examination across all levels of the syllabus: Gaelic for learners equivalent to the modern foreign languages syllabus and Gaelic for native speakers equivalent to the English syllabus.
These are not widely recognised as qualifications, but are required for those taking part in certain competitions at the annual mods.
In October , a new agreement was made which allows Scottish Gaelic to be used formally between Scottish Government ministers and European Union officials.
The Scottish government will have to pay for the translation from Gaelic to other European languages. He said that "Allowing Gaelic speakers to communicate with European institutions in their mother tongue is a progressive step forward and one which should be welcomed".
Culture Minister Mike Russell said that "this is a significant step forward for the recognition of Gaelic both at home and abroad and I look forward to addressing the council in Gaelic very soon.
Seeing Gaelic spoken in such a forum raises the profile of the language as we drive forward our commitment to creating a new generation of Gaelic speakers in Scotland.
The Scottish Gaelic used in Machine-readable British passports differs from Irish passports in places. Bilingual road signs, street names, business and advertisement signage in both Gaelic and English are gradually being introduced throughout Gaelic-speaking regions in the Highlands and Islands, including Argyll.
Bilingual railway station signs are now more frequent than they used to be. Practically all the stations in the Highland area use both English and Gaelic, and the spread of bilingual station signs is becoming ever more frequent in the Lowlands of Scotland, including areas where Gaelic has not been spoken for a long time.
The Ordnance Survey has acted in recent years to correct many of the mistakes that appear on maps. They announced in that they intended to correct them and set up a committee to determine the correct forms of Gaelic place names for their maps.
In the nineteenth century, Canadian Gaelic was the third-most widely spoken language in Canada  and Gaelic-speaking immigrant communities could be found throughout the country.
Gaelic poets in Canada produced a significant literary tradition. At the start of the 21st century, it was estimated that no more than people in Nova Scotia still spoke Scottish Gaelic as a first language.
In the Nova Scotia census, people claimed to have Gaelic as their first language , a figure that includes Irish Gaelic. It also broadcasts across Europe on the Astra 2 satellites.
There are also television programmes in the language on other BBC channels and on the independent commercial channels , usually subtitled in English.
The Education Scotland Act , which completely ignored Gaelic, and led to generations of Gaels being forbidden to speak their native language in the classroom, is now recognised as having dealt a major blow to the language.
People still living can recall being beaten for speaking Gaelic in school. Gaelic-medium playgroups for young children began to appear in Scotland during the late s and early s.
Parent enthusiasm may have been a factor in the "establishment of the first Gaelic medium primary school units in Glasgow and Inverness in ".
The Columba Initiative , also known as colmcille formerly Iomairt Cholm Cille , is a body that seeks to promote links between speakers of Scottish Gaelic and Irish.
In May , the Nova Scotia government announced the funding of an initiative to support the language and its culture within the province.
Several public schools in Northeastern Nova Scotia and Cape Breton offer Gaelic classes as part of the high-school curriculum. A number of Scottish and some Irish universities offer full-time degrees including a Gaelic language element, usually graduating as Celtic Studies.
Many continue to complete degrees, or to follow up as distance learners. A number of other colleges offer a one-year certificate course, which is also available online pending accreditation.
The isles of South Uist and Barra have a Catholic majority. All these churches have Gaelic-speaking congregations throughout the Western Isles.
The widespread use of English in worship has often been suggested as one of the historic reasons for the decline of Gaelic. The Church of Scotland is supportive today, [ vague ] but has a shortage of Gaelic-speaking ministers.
The Free Church also recently announced plans to abolish Gaelic-language communion services, citing both a lack of ministers and a desire to have their congregations united at communion time.
From the sixth century to the present day, Scottish Gaelic has been used as the language of literature. Two prominent writers of the twentieth century are Anne Frater and Sorley Maclean.
Gaelic has its own version of European-wide names which also have English forms, for example: Not all traditional Gaelic names have direct equivalents in English: Oighrig , which is normally rendered as Euphemia Effie or Henrietta Etta formerly also as Henny or even as Harriet , or, Diorbhal , which is "matched" with Dorothy , simply on the basis of a certain similarity in spelling.
Many of these traditional Gaelic-only names are now regarded as old-fashioned, and hence are rarely or never used. Some Scottish names are Anglicized forms of Gaelic names: Several colours give rise to common Scottish surnames: Although some vowels are strongly nasal, instances of distinctive nasality are rare.
There are about nine diphthongs and a few triphthongs. Most consonants have both palatal and non-palatal counterparts, including a very rich system of liquids , nasals and trills i.
In medial and final position, the aspirated stops are preaspirated rather than aspirated. Scottish Gaelic is an Indo-European language with an inflecting morphology , verb—subject—object word order and two grammatical genders.
They are also normally classed as either masculine or feminine. These schools teach entirely through Irish, and there are over thirty in Dublin alone.
It is likely that the number of urban native speakers i. It is presently uncertain whether the urban Irish of non-native speakers will become a dialect in its own right or grow further apart from native Gaeltacht Irish and become a creole i.
Its rules are followed by most schools in Ireland, though schools in and near Irish-speaking regions also use the local dialect.
There is no official standard for pronouncing the Irish language. The differences between dialects are considerable, and have led to recurrent difficulties in defining standard Irish.
In recent decades contacts between speakers of different dialects have become more frequent and the differences between the dialects are less noticeable.
In pronunciation, Irish most closely resembles its nearest relatives, Scottish Gaelic and Manx. While broad—slender pairs are not unique to Irish being found, for example, in Russian , in Irish they have a grammatical function.
Irish is a fusional , VSO , nominative-accusative language. Irish is neither verb nor satellite framed , and makes liberal use of deictic verbs.
Nouns decline for 3 numbers: Adjectives agree with nouns in number , gender , and case. Adjectives generally follow nouns, though some precede or prefix nouns.
Demonstrative adjectives have proximal , medial , and distal forms. The prepositional case is called the dative by convention.
Verbs conjugate for 3 tenses: Verbs conjugate for 3 persons and an impersonal form in which no agent can be determined. There are two verbs for "to be", one for inherent qualities , and one for transient qualities.
The passive voice and many other forms are periphrastic. There are a number of preverbal particles marking the negative , interrogative , subjunctive , relative clauses , etc.
There is a verbal noun , and verbal adjective. Verb forms are highly regular , many grammars recognise only 11 irregular verbs.
Prepositions inflect for person and number. Different prepositions govern different cases. Some prepositions govern different cases depending on intended semantics.
The word ag at , becomes agam at me in the first person singular. Irish shares this attribute with Russian.
Numerals have 4 forms: In Irish, there are two classes of initial consonant mutations , which express grammatical relationship and meaning in verbs, nouns and adjectives:.
Mutations are often the only way to distinguish grammatical forms. For example, the only non-contextual way to distinguish possessive pronouns "her," "his" and "their", is through initial mutations since all meanings are represented by the same word a.
Due to initial mutation , prefixes , clitics , suffixes , root inflection , ending morphology , elision , sandhi , epinthesis , and assimilation ; the beginning, core, and end of words can each change radically and even simultaneously depending on context.
Modern Irish traditionally used the Latin alphabet without the letters j, k, q, w, x, y and z. However, some Gaelicised words use those letters: In idiomatic English usage, this diacritic is frequently referred to simply as the fada , where the adjective is used as a noun.
The fada serves to lengthen the sound of the vowels and in some cases also changes their quality. In modern Irish, the letter h suffixed to a consonant indicates that the consonant is lenited.
It simplified and standardised the orthography. Many words had silent letters removed and vowel combination brought closer to the spoken language.
Where multiple versions existed in different dialects for the same word, one or more were selected. The standard spelling does not necessarily reflect the pronunciation used in particular dialects.
For example, in standard Irish, bia , "food", has the genitive bia. Another example would be the word crua , meaning "hard".
Lenition of c , p , and t was indicated by placing the letter h after the affected consonant; lenition of other sounds was left unmarked. Later both methods were extended to be indicators of lenition of any sound except l and n , and two competing systems were used: Eventually, use of the buailte predominated when texts were written using Gaelic letters, while the h predominated when writing using Roman letters.
Today, Gaelic type and the buailte are rarely used except where a "traditional" style is required, e. Letters with the buailte are available in Unicode and Latin-8 character sets see Latin Extended Additional chart.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Goidelic Gaelic language spoken in Ireland and by Irish people. For other uses, see Irish language disambiguation.
United Kingdom Northern Ireland . Proportion of respondents who said they could speak Irish in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland censuses of History of the Irish language.
Status of the Irish language. Irish language in Northern Ireland. Irish language outside Ireland and Irish language in Newfoundland.
Irish grammar , Irish declension , Irish conjugation , and Irish syntax. It included Greek, Hebrew and Celtic neologisms.
Elizabethan Ireland and the Poetics of Difference. Oxford University Press The Dialects of Irish: Study of a Changing Landscape. Walter de Gruyter, The Sound Structure of Modern Irish.
De Gruyter Mouton Scriptural Instruction in the Vernacular: The Irish Society and its Teachers — Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies From the Norman Invasion to Independence , Oxford, Garvin, Tom, Preventing the Future: Why was Ireland so poor for so long?
Hindley, Reg , new ed. The Death of the Irish Language: The Gaelic Revival and Irish Society, — Syracuse University Press Essays on the Linguistic and Cultural Frontier — Four Courts Press Language Use and Attitudes , ed.
Kim McCone and others. The Irish language" PDF. Archived PDF from the original on 11 October Retrieved 24 September Archived from the original PDF on 8 March Retrieved 10 June Retrieved 30 December Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 16 October Retrieved 22 December Definition of Gaelic by Merriam-Webster".
Rules governing the languages of the institutions European Union, Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 19 February An example of the use of the word "Gaelic" to describe the language, seen throughout the text of the article.