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Französisches wikipedia

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französisches wikipedia

Französisch bzw. die französische Sprache (französisch (le) français [(lə) fʁɑ̃ˈsɛ], (la) langue française [ (la) lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃ˈsεz]) gehört zu der romanischen Gruppe. Frankreich (Zum Anhören bitte klicken! [ˈfʁaŋkʁaɪ̯ç]; amtlich Französische Republik, französisch République française [ boucheaoreille.euˈblik fʁɑ̃.ˈsɛz], Kurzform. natürlich eine Spezialität des „Cuisinier françois“, des französischen Kochs Möge s. boucheaoreille.eu (letztmaliger Abruf: ).

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Der Präsident leitet die ihm verliehene staatliche Autorität an den Premierminister und die Regierung weiter, wobei die Regierung die vom Präsidenten vorgegebenen Richtlinien umzusetzen hat. Viele Senatoren und Abgeordnete sind zugleich als Bürgermeister in der Kommunalpolitik aktiv. Im Jahre gelang es ihnen, in der Schlacht von Tours und Poitiers der von der iberischen Halbinsel ausgehenden Islamischen Expansion Einhalt zu gebieten. Juni um Die Restauration brachte wieder die Bourbonen auf den Thron, die darangingen, das verlorene Kolonialreich wieder aufzubauen. Juli, Sturm auf die Bastille , Föderationsfest. Diese sich herausbildende Zweisprachigkeit führte zu erheblichen Schwierigkeiten bei der Verständigung des lateinisch sprechenden Klerus mit dem Volk. Als die Renaissance auch in Frankreich aufkam, interpretierten die französischen Architekten diese Kunstform auf ihre Weise und errichteten zahlreiche Schlösser im ganzen Land.

The Fifth Republic , led by Charles de Gaulle , was formed in and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the s and typically retained close economic and military connections with France.

France has long been a global centre of art , science , and philosophy. Originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire , the name "France" comes from the Latin " Francia ", or "country of the Franks ".

There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm , [22] the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank free in English.

The oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from approximately 1. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life.

At the end of the last glacial period 10, BC , the climate became milder; [27] from approximately 7, BC, this part of Western Europe entered the Neolithic era and its inhabitants became sedentary.

After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium, initially working gold , copper and bronze , and later iron.

The concept of Gaul emerged at that time; it corresponds to the territories of Celtic settlement ranging between the Rhine , the Atlantic Ocean , the Pyrenees and the Mediterranean.

The borders of modern France are roughly the same as those of ancient Gaul, which was inhabited by Celtic Gauls.

Gaul was then a prosperous country, of which the southernmost part was heavily subject to Greek and Roman cultural and economic influences.

The Gauls mixed with Roman settlers and eventually adopted Roman culture and Roman speech Latin , from which the French language evolved.

The Roman polytheism merged with the Gallic paganism into the same syncretism. From the s to the s AD, Roman Gaul suffered a serious crisis with its fortified borders being attacked on several occasions by barbarians.

Subsequently, Christians, who had been persecuted until then, increased rapidly across the entire Roman Empire. At the end of the Antiquity period, ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms and a remaining Gallo-Roman territory, known as the Kingdom of Syagrius.

Simultaneously, Celtic Britons , fleeing the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain , settled the western part of Armorica. As a result, the Armorican peninsula was renamed Brittany , Celtic culture was revived and independent petty kingdoms arose in this region.

The pagan Franks, from whom the ancient name of "Francie" was derived, originally settled the north part of Gaul , but under Clovis I conquered most of the other kingdoms in northern and central Gaul.

The Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languages , except in northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense and where Germanic languages emerged.

Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian dynasty , but his kingdom would not survive his death. The last Merovingian kings lost power to their mayors of the palace head of household.

One mayor of the palace, Charles Martel , defeated an Islamic invasion of Gaul at the Battle of Tours and earned respect and power within the Frankish kingdoms.

His son, Pepin the Short , seized the crown of Francia from the weakened Merovingians and founded the Carolingian dynasty.

West Francia approximated the area occupied by, and was the precursor to, modern France. During the 9th and 10th centuries, continually threatened by Viking invasions , France became a very decentralised state: Thus was established feudalism in France.

For example, after the Battle of Hastings in , William the Conqueror added "King of England" to his titles, becoming both the vassal to as Duke of Normandy and the equal of as king of England the king of France, creating recurring tensions.

The French nobility played a prominent role in most Crusades in order to restore Christian access to the Holy Land.

French knights made up the bulk of the steady flow of reinforcements throughout the two-hundred-year span of the Crusades, in such a fashion that the Arabs uniformly referred to the crusaders as Franj caring little whether they really came from France.

The latter, in particular, held numerous properties throughout France and by the 13th century were the principal bankers for the French crown, until Philip IV annihilated the order in The Albigensian Crusade was launched in to eliminate the heretical Cathars in the southwestern area of modern-day France.

In the end, the Cathars were exterminated and the autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into the crown lands of France.

Meanwhile, the royal authority became more and more assertive, centred on a hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility , clergy, and commoners.

Charles IV the Fair died without an heir in During the reign of Philip of Valois , the French monarchy reached the height of its medieval power.

With charismatic leaders, such as Joan of Arc and La Hire , strong French counterattacks won back English continental territories.

Like the rest of Europe, France was struck by the Black Death; half of the 17 million population of France died. French explorers, such as Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlain , claimed lands in the Americas for France, paving the way for the expansion of the First French colonial empire.

The rise of Protestantism in Europe led France to a civil war known as the French Wars of Religion , where, in the most notorious incident, thousands of Huguenots were murdered in the St.

Under Louis XIII , the energetic Cardinal Richelieu promoted the centralisation of the state and reinforced the royal power by disarming domestic power holders in the s.

He systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence dueling , carrying weapons, and maintaining private army.

By the end of s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the doctrine. The war cost France , casualties. This rebellion was driven by the great feudal lords and sovereign courts as a reaction to the rise of royal absolute power in France.

The monarchy reached its peak during the 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV. Remembered for his numerous wars, he made France the leading European power.

France became the most populous country in Europe and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture.

French became the most-used language in diplomacy, science, literature and international affairs, and remained so until the 20th century.

Its European territory kept growing, however, with notable acquisitions such as Lorraine and Corsica Much of the Enlightenment occurred in French intellectual circles, and major scientific breakthroughs and inventions, such as the discovery of oxygen and the first hot air balloon carrying passengers , were achieved by French scientists.

The Enlightenment philosophy, in which reason is advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authority , undermined the power of and support for the monarchy and helped pave the way for the French Revolution.

As it came to an impasse, the representatives of the Third Estate formed into a National Assembly , signalling the outbreak of the French Revolution.

In early August , the National Constituent Assembly abolished the privileges of the nobility such as personal serfdom and exclusive hunting rights.

Through the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 27 August France established fundamental rights for men. The Declaration affirms "the natural and imprescriptible rights of man" to "liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression".

Freedom of speech and press were declared, and arbitrary arrests outlawed. It called for the destruction of aristocratic privileges and proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, as well as access to public office based on talent rather than birth.

In November , the Assembly decided to nationalize and sell all property of the Roman Catholic Church which had been the largest landowner in the country.

In July , a Civil Constitution of the Clergy reorganised the French Catholic Church, cancelling the authority of the Church to levy taxes, et cetera.

This fueled much discontent in parts of France, which would contribute to the civil war breaking out some years later.

While King Louis XVI still enjoyed popularity among the population, his disastrous flight to Varennes June seemed to justify rumours he had tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign invasion.

His credibility was so deeply undermined that the abolition of the monarchy and establishment of a republic became an increasing possibility.

In August , the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia in the Declaration of Pillnitz threatened revolutionary France to intervene by force of arms to restore the French absolute monarchy.

A majority in the Assembly in however saw a war with Austria and Prussia as a chance to boost the popularity of the revolutionary government, and thought that France would win a war against those gathered monarchies.

On 20 April , therefore, they declared war on Austria. In early September, Parisians, infuriated by the Prussian army capturing Verdun and counter-revolutionary uprisings in the west of France, murdered between 1, and 1, prisoners by raiding the Parisian prisons.

The Assembly and the Paris city council seemed unable to stop that bloodshed. Some historians consider the civil war to have lasted until with a toll of possibly , lives.

Political disagreements and enmity in the National Convention between October and July reached unprecedented levels, leading to dozens of Convention members being sentenced to death and guillotined.

In , the government seemed to return to indifference towards the desires and needs of the lower classes concerning freedom of Catholic religion and fair distribution of food.

Napoleon Bonaparte seized control of the Republic in becoming First Consul and later Emperor of the French Empire —; His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such as the battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz.

Members of the Bonaparte family were appointed as monarchs in some of the newly established kingdoms. After the catastrophic Russian campaign , and the ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule, Napoleon was defeated and the Bourbon monarchy restored.

About a million Frenchmen died during the Napoleonic Wars. The discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown by the July Revolution of , which established the constitutional July Monarchy.

According to historian Ben Kiernan , the French conquest and pacification of Algeria from until the early twentieth century slaughtered , Algerian people.

French losses from —51 were 92, dead in the hospital and only 3, killed in action. In general unrest led to the February Revolution and the end of the July Monarchy.

The abolition of slavery and male universal suffrage , both briefly enacted during the French Revolution were re-enacted in He multiplied French interventions abroad, especially in Crimea , in Mexico and Italy which resulted in the annexation of the duchy of Savoy and the county of Nice , then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

France had colonial possessions , in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century, but in the 19th and 20th centuries, its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly and became the second largest in the world behind the British Empire.

Including metropolitan France , the total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometres in the s and s, 8. In , state secularism was officially established.

The French conquest of Morocco was one of the longest and toughest in the annals of European colonialism. French historian Daniel Rivet puts the casualty rate among Moroccans who resisted the French occupation at , A small part of Northern France was occupied, but France and its allies emerged victorious against the Central Powers at a tremendous human and material cost.

World War I left 1. In , France was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany. Metropolitan France was divided into a German occupation zone in the north and Vichy France , a newly established authoritarian regime collaborating with Germany , in the south, while Free France , the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle , was set up in London.

This interim government, established by de Gaulle, aimed to continue to wage war against Germany and to purge collaborators from office. It also made several important reforms suffrage extended to women, creation of a social security system.

The GPRF laid the groundwork for a new constitutional order that resulted in the Fourth Republic , which saw spectacular economic growth les Trente Glorieuses.

France was one of the founding members of NATO More than 40, Algerian fell victim to the shooting and strafing, from planes, and armed cars.

Between March and September , the electoral victory of the proponents of independence in Madagascar was followed by a savage repression by the French army 18,, mostly Senegalese , troops , resulting in some 90, deaths.

Estimates of the number of Vietnamese military and civilian casualties during the war of independence from France range from , dead and , wounded to half a million dead and 1 million wounded.

Only months later, France faced another anti-colonialist conflict in Algeria. Torture and illegal executions were perpetrated by both sides and the debate over whether or not to keep control of Algeria , then home to over one million European settlers , [77] wracked the country and nearly led to a coup and civil war.

Despite its military victory, France granted independence to Algerians. The war exacted a heavy human toll among the Algerian population. It resulted in some , deaths and 2,, internally displaced Algerians.

In the context of the Cold War , de Gaulle pursued a policy of "national independence" towards the Western and Eastern blocs.

He restored cordial Franco-German relations in order to create a European counterweight between the American and Soviet spheres of influence. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe , favouring a Europe of sovereign nations.

In the wake of the series of worldwide protests of , the revolt of May had an enormous social impact. In France, it is considered to be the watershed moment when a conservative moral ideal religion, patriotism, respect for authority shifted towards a more liberal moral ideal secularism , individualism , sexual revolution.

Although the revolt was a political failure as the Gaullist party emerged even stronger than before it announced a split between the French people and de Gaulle who resigned shortly after.

In the post-Gaullist era, France remained one of the most developed economies in the world , but faced several economic crises that resulted in high unemployment rates and increasing public debt.

In the late 20th and early 21st centuries France has been at the forefront of the development of a supranational European Union , notably by signing the Maastricht Treaty which created the European Union in , establishing the Eurozone in , and signing the Lisbon Treaty in Since the 19th century France has received many immigrants.

These have been mostly male foreign workers from European Catholic countries who generally returned home when not employed.

It resulted in hundreds of thousands of Muslims especially in the larger cities living in subsidised public housing and suffering from very high unemployment rates.

They were encouraged to retain their distinctive cultures and traditions and required merely to integrate. It is bordered by the North Sea in the north, the English Channel in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Mediterranean sea in the southeast.

It land borders consist of Belgium and Luxembourg in the northeast, Germany and Switzerland in the east, Italy and Monaco in the southeast, and Andorra and Spain in the south and southwest.

Metropolitan France includes various coastal islands, of which the largest is Corsica. France has several overseas regions across the world, which are organised along different:.

France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the southeast, the Massif Central in the south central and Pyrenees in the southwest.

Metropolitan France has a wide variety of topographical sets and natural landscapes. Large parts of the current territory of France were raised during several tectonic episodes like the Hercynian uplift in the Paleozoic Era, during which the Armorican Massif , the Massif Central , the Morvan , the Vosges and Ardennes ranges and the island of Corsica were formed.

These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such as the Aquitaine basin in the southwest and the Paris basin in the north, the latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such as the silt beds of Beauce and Brie.

The Alpine, Pyrenean and Jura mountains are much younger and have less eroded forms. The coastlines offer contrasting landscapes: Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast.

Other water courses drain towards the Meuse and Rhine along the north-eastern borders. Corsica and a small part of the territory bordering the mediterranean basin lies in the Csa and Csb zones.

As the French metropolitan territory is relatively large, the climate is not uniform, giving rise to the following climate nuances:.

France was one of the first countries to create an environment ministry, in The parks foster ecological research programmes and public education in the natural sciences.

The French Republic is divided into 18 regions located in Europe and overseas , five overseas collectivities , one overseas territory , one special collectivity — New Caledonia and one uninhabited island directly under the authority of the Minister of Overseas France — Clipperton.

Since France is mainly divided into 18 administrative regions: This number is used in postal codes and was formerly used on vehicle number plates.

The departments are subdivided into arrondissements , which are, in turn, subdivided into 2, cantons. The regions, departments and communes are all known as territorial collectivities , meaning they possess local assemblies as well as an executive.

Arrondissements and cantons are merely administrative divisions. However, this was not always the case. Until , the arrondissements were territorial collectivities with an elected assembly, but these were suspended by the Vichy regime and definitely abolished by the Fourth Republic in Overseas collectivities and territories form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the European Union or its fiscal area with the exception of St.

Bartelemy, which seceded from Guadeloupe in In contrast, the five overseas regions used the French franc and now use the euro. The French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with strong democratic traditions.

The executive branch itself has two leaders: Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms originally 9-year terms , and one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years starting in September Since World War II, they were marginalized while French politics became characterised by two politically opposed groupings: In the presidential and legislative elections, radical centrist party En Marche!

France uses a civil legal system; [90] that is, law arises primarily from written statutes; judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it though the amount of judicial interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law.

Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Napoleonic Code which was, in turn, largely based on the royal law codified under Louis XIV.

In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society.

As Guy Canivet , first president of the Court of Cassation , wrote about the management of prisons: Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality.

That is, Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy.

French law is divided into two principal areas: Private law includes, in particular, civil law and criminal law. Public law includes, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law.

However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited.

France does not recognise religious law as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws the latter being abolished in Since , civil unions for homosexual couples are permitted, and since May , same-sex marriage and LGBT adoption are legal in France.

Some consider however that hate speech laws in France are too broad or severe and damage freedom of speech.

Freedom of religion is constitutionally guaranteed by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Nonetheless, it does recognize religious associations.

The Parliament has listed many religious movements as dangerous cults since , and has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols in schools since In , it banned the wearing of face-covering Islamic veils in public ; human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch described the law as discriminatory towards Muslims.

France is a founding member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council with veto rights. Postwar French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the European Union, of which it was a founding member.

Since the s , France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU. However, since , France has maintained an " Entente cordiale " with the United Kingdom , and there has been a strengthening of links between the countries, especially militarily.

France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NATO , but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to protest the special relationship between the United States and Britain and to preserve the independence of French foreign and security policies.

In the early s, the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia.

In , France was the fourth-largest in absolute terms donor of development aid in the world, behind the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany.

Together they are among the largest armed forces in the world and the largest in the EU. While the Gendarmerie is an integral part of the French armed forces gendarmes are career soldiers , and therefore under the purview of the Ministry of the Armed Forces , it is operationally attached to the Ministry of the Interior as far as its civil police duties are concerned.

The following special units are also part of the Gendarmerie: There has been no national conscription since France has a special military corps, the French Foreign Legion , founded in , which consists of foreign nationals from over countries who are willing to serve in the French Armed Forces and become French citizens after the end of their service period.

The only other countries having similar units are Spain the Spanish Foreign Legion, called Tercio , was founded in and Luxembourg foreigners can serve in the National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish.

France is a permanent member of the Security Council of the UN , and a recognised nuclear state since French nuclear deterrence, formerly known as " Force de Frappe " , relies on complete independence.

The current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles. France has major military industries with one of the largest aerospace industries in the world.

Other smaller parades are organised across the country. The Government of France has run a budget deficit each year since the early s. As of [update] , French government debt levels reached 2.

France has a mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise [] [] with substantial state enterprise and government intervention. The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, nuclear power and telecommunications.

Financial services, banking and the insurance sector are an important part of the economy. Three largest financial institutions cooperatively owned by their customers are located in France.

France is a member of the Eurozone around million consumers which is part of the European Single Market more than million consumers.

Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.

France introduced the common European currency, the Euro in French companies have maintained key positions in the insurance and banking industries: France has historically been a large producer of agricultural products.

Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognised processed foods are the primary French agricultural exports.

It is third in income from tourism due to shorter duration of visits. With more than 10 millions tourists a year, the French Riviera French: With 6 millions tourists a year, the castles of the Loire Valley French: The " Remarkable Gardens " label is a list of the over gardens classified by the French Ministry of Culture.

This label is intended to protect and promote remarkable gardens and parks. France attracts many religious pilgrims on their way to St.

France is the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the G8 , due to its heavy investment in nuclear power.

Rail connections exist to all other neighbouring countries in Europe, except Andorra. French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighbouring Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Andorra and Monaco.

There is no annual registration fee or road tax ; however, usage of the mostly privately owned motorways is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes.

There are airports in France. Air France is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services.

There are ten major ports in France, the largest of which is in Marseille , [] which also is the largest bordering the Mediterranean Sea.

Since the Middle Ages , France has been a major contributor to scientific and technological achievement. They were both key figures of the Scientific revolution , which blossomed in Europe during this period.

It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is one of the earliest academies of sciences.

Other eminent French scientists of the 19th century have their names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. Hand transplantation was developed on 23 September in Lyon by a team assembled from different countries around the world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who, shortly thereafter, performed the first successful double hand transplant.

France was the fourth country to achieve nuclear capability [] and has the third largest nuclear weapons arsenal in the world. The TGV has been the fastest wheeled train in commercial use since reaching a speed of As of [update] , 69 French people have been awarded a Nobel Prize [] and 12 have received the Fields Medal.

With an estimated total population of France is also second most populous country in the European Union after Germany. France is an outlier among developed countries in general, and European countries in particular, in having a fairly high rate of natural population growth: This was the highest rate since the end of the baby boom in , and coincides with the rise of the total fertility rate from a nadir of 1.

As of January [update] the fertility rate was 1. Large-scale immigration over the last century and a half has led to a more multicultural society.

A law originating from the revolution and reaffirmed in the French Constitution makes it illegal for the French state to collect data on ethnicity and ancestry.

There are also sizeable minorities of other European ethnic groups , namely Spanish , Portuguese , Polish , and Greek. France has a significant Gypsy Gitan population, numbering between 20, and , France remains a major destination for immigrants, accepting about , legal immigrants annually.

By this time, Necker had earned the enmity of many members of the French court for his overt manipulation of public opinion. They were also afraid that arriving soldiers — mostly foreign mercenaries — had been summoned to shut down the National Constituent Assembly.

The Assembly, meeting at Versailles, went into nonstop session to prevent another eviction from their meeting place.

Paris was soon consumed by riots, chaos, and widespread looting. The mobs soon had the support of some of the French Guard , who were armed and trained soldiers.

On 14 July, the insurgents set their eyes on the large weapons and ammunition cache inside the Bastille fortress, which was also perceived to be a symbol of royal power.

After several hours of combat, the prison fell that afternoon. The King, alarmed by the violence, backed down, at least for the time being.

Necker was recalled to power, but his triumph was short-lived. By late July, the spirit of popular sovereignty had spread throughout France.

In rural areas, many commoners began to form militias and arm themselves against a foreign invasion: In addition, wild rumours and paranoia caused widespread unrest and civil disturbances that contributed to the collapse of law and order.

On 4 and 11 August the National Constituent Assembly abolished privileges and feudalism numerous peasant revolts had almost brought feudalism to an end in the August Decrees , sweeping away personal serfdom , [59] exclusive hunting rights and other seigneurial rights of the Second Estate nobility.

Other proposals followed with the same success: Privileges of provinces and towns were offered as a last sacrifice. Originally the peasants were supposed to pay for the release of seigneurial dues; these dues affected more than a fourth of the farmland in France and provided most of the income of the large landowners.

Thus the peasants got their land free, and also no longer paid the tithe to the church. They destroyed aristocratic society from top to bottom, along with its structure of dependencies and privileges.

For this structure they substituted the modern, autonomous individual, free to do whatever was not prohibited by law The Revolution thus distinguished itself quite early by its radical individualism [66].

The old judicial system, based on the 13 regional parlements , was suspended in November , and officially abolished in September The main institutional pillars of the old regime had vanished overnight.

On 26 August the Assembly published the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , which comprised a statement of principles rather than a constitution with legal effect.

The Declaration was directly influenced by Thomas Jefferson working with General Lafayette, who introduced it.

The National Constituent Assembly functioned not only as a legislature, but also as a body to draft a new constitution. Necker, Mounier, Lally-Tollendal and others argued unsuccessfully for a senate, with members appointed by the crown on the nomination of the people.

The bulk of the nobles argued for an aristocratic upper house elected by the nobles. The popular party carried the day: France would have a single, unicameral assembly.

The King retained only a " suspensive veto "; he could delay the implementation of a law, but not block it absolutely.

They also demanded an end to royal efforts to block the National Assembly, and for the King and his administration to move to Paris as a sign of good faith in addressing the widespread poverty.

Getting unsatisfactory responses from city officials, as many as 7, women joined the march to Versailles, bringing with them cannons and a variety of smaller weapons.

Twenty thousand National Guardsmen under the command of Lafayette responded to keep order, and members of the mob stormed the palace, killing several guards.

On 6 October , the King and the royal family moved from Versailles to Paris under the "protection" of the National Guards, thus legitimising the National Assembly.

The Revolution caused a massive shift of power from the Roman Catholic Church to the state. Resentment towards the Church weakened its power during the opening of the Estates General in May The Church composed the First Estate with , members of the clergy.

When the National Assembly was later created in June by the Third Estate, the clergy voted to join them, which perpetuated the destruction of the Estates General as a governing body.

In an attempt to address the financial crisis, the Assembly declared, on 2 November , that the property of the Church was "at the disposal of the nation".

Thus, the nation had now also taken on the responsibility of the Church, which included paying the clergy and caring for the poor, the sick and the orphaned.

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy , passed on 12 July , turned the remaining clergy into employees of the state.

This established an election system for parish priests and bishops and set a pay rate for the clergy. Many Catholics objected to the election system because it effectively denied the authority of the Pope in Rome over the French Church.

In October a group of 30 bishops wrote a declaration saying they could not accept that law, and this protest fueled also civilian opposition against that law.

Widespread refusal led to legislation against the clergy, "forcing them into exile, deporting them forcibly, or executing them as traitors".

Workers complained it reduced the number of first-day-of-the-week holidays from 52 to During the Reign of Terror , extreme efforts of de-Christianisation ensued, including the imprisonment and massacre of priests and destruction of churches and religious images throughout France.

An effort was made to replace the Catholic Church altogether, with civic festivals replacing religious ones. The establishment of the Cult of Reason was the final step of radical de-Christianisation.

These events led to a widespread disillusionment with the Revolution and to counter-rebellions across France.

Locals often resisted de-Christianisation by attacking revolutionary agents and hiding members of the clergy who were being hunted. Eventually, Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety were forced to denounce the campaign, [82] replacing the Cult of Reason with the deist but still non-Christian Cult of the Supreme Being.

The Concordat of between Napoleon and the Church ended the de-Christianisation period and established the rules for a relationship between the Catholic Church and the French State that lasted until it was abrogated by the Third Republic via the separation of church and state on 11 December Historians Lynn Hunt and Jack Censer argue that some French Protestants, the Huguenots , wanted an anti-Catholic regime, and that Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire helped fuel this resentment.

Factions within the Assembly began to clarify. The "Royalist democrats" or monarchiens , allied with Necker , inclined towards organising France along lines similar to the British constitutional model; they included Jean Joseph Mounier , the Comte de Lally-Tollendal , the comte de Clermont-Tonnerre , and Pierre Victor Malouet, comte de Virieu.

Almost alone in his radicalism on the left was the Arras lawyer Maximilien Robespierre. In Paris, various committees, the mayor, the assembly of representatives, and the individual districts each claimed authority independent of the others.

The increasingly middle-class National Guard under Lafayette also slowly emerged as a power in its own right, as did other self-generated assemblies.

The electors had originally chosen the members of the Estates-General to serve for a single year. However, by the terms of the Tennis Court Oath , the communes had bound themselves to meet continuously until France had a constitution.

Right-wing elements now argued for a new election, but Mirabeau prevailed, asserting that the status of the assembly had fundamentally changed, and that no new election should take place before completing the constitution.

In late the French army was in considerable disarray. The military officer corps was largely composed of noblemen, who found it increasingly difficult to maintain order within the ranks.

In some cases, soldiers drawn from the lower classes had turned against their aristocratic commanders and attacked them. This and other such incidents spurred a mass desertion as more and more officers defected to other countries, leaving a dearth of experienced leadership within the army.

This period also saw the rise of the political "clubs" in French politics. Foremost among these was the Jacobin Club ; members had affiliated with the Jacobins by 10 August The Jacobin Society began as a broad, general organisation for political debate, but as it grew in members, various factions developed with widely differing views.

Meanwhile, the Assembly continued to work on developing a constitution. A new judicial organisation made all magistracies temporary and independent of the throne.

The legislators abolished hereditary offices, except for the monarchy itself. Jury trials started for criminal cases. The King would have the unique power to propose war, with the legislature then deciding whether to declare war.

Louis XVI was increasingly dismayed by the direction of the revolution. Eventually, fearing for his own safety and that of his family, he decided to flee Paris to the Austrian border, having been assured of the loyalty of the border garrisons.

On the night of 20 June the royal family fled the Tuileries Palace dressed as servants, while their servants dressed as nobles. However, late the next day, the King was recognised and arrested at Varennes and returned to Paris.

The Assembly provisionally suspended the King. He and Queen Marie Antoinette remained held under guard. As most of the Assembly still favoured a constitutional monarchy rather than a republic, the various groups reached a compromise which left Louis XVI as little more than a figurehead: An immense crowd gathered in the Champ de Mars to sign the petition.

Georges Danton and Camille Desmoulins gave fiery speeches. The Assembly called for the municipal authorities to "preserve public order".

The soldiers responded to a barrage of stones by firing into the crowd, killing between 13 and 50 people.

Danton fled to England; Desmoulins and Marat went into hiding. Meanwhile, in August , a new threat arose from abroad: The French people expressed no respect for the dictates of foreign monarchs, and the threat of force merely hastened their militarisation.

Even before the Flight to Varennes, the Assembly members had determined to debar themselves from the legislature that would succeed them, the Legislative Assembly.

They now gathered the various constitutional laws they had passed into a single constitution, and submitted it to the recently restored Louis XVI, who accepted it, writing "I engage to maintain it at home, to defend it from all attacks from abroad, and to cause its execution by all the means it places at my disposal".

The King addressed the Assembly and received enthusiastic applause from members and spectators. With this capstone, the National Constituent Assembly adjourned in a final session on 30 September The Legislative Assembly first met on 1 October , elected by those 4 million men — out of a population of 25 million — who paid a certain minimum amount of taxes.

The King had to share power with the elected Legislative Assembly, but he retained his royal veto and the ability to select ministers.

Over the course of a year, such disagreements would lead to a constitutional crisis. In response to the threat of war of August from Austria and Prussia , leaders of the Assembly saw such a war as a means to strengthen support for their revolutionary government, and the French people as well as the Assembly thought that they would win a war against Austria and Prussia.

On 20 April , France declared war on Austria. The Legislative Assembly degenerated into chaos before October Francis Charles Montague concluded in , "In the attempt to govern, the Assembly failed altogether.

It left behind an empty treasury, an undisciplined army and navy, and a people debauched by safe and successful riot.

Lyons argues that the Constituent Assembly had liberal, rational, and individualistic goals that seem to have been largely achieved by However, it failed to consolidate the gains of the Revolution, which continued with increasing momentum and escalating radicalism until Lyons identifies six reasons for this escalation.

First, the king did not accept the limitations on his powers, and mobilised support from foreign monarchs to reverse it.

Second, the effort to overthrow the Roman Catholic Church, sell off its lands, close its monasteries and its charitable operations, and replace it with an unpopular makeshift system caused deep consternation among the pious and the peasants.

Third, the economy was badly hurt by the issuance of ever increasing amounts of paper money assignats , which caused more and more inflation; the rising prices hurt the urban poor who spent most of their income on food.

Fourth, the rural peasants demanded liberation from the heavy system of taxes and dues owed to local landowners. Finally, foreign powers threatened to overthrow the Revolution, which responded with extremism and systematic violence in its own defence.

In the summer of , all of Paris was against the king, and hoped that the Assembly would depose the king, but the Assembly hesitated.

On 26 August, the Assembly decreed the deportation of refractory priests in the west of France, as "causes of danger to the fatherland", to destinations like French Guiana.

With enemy troops advancing, the Commune looked for potential traitors in Paris. On 2, 3 and 4 September , hundreds of Parisians, supporters of the revolution, infuriated by Verdun being captured by the Prussian enemy , the uprisings in the west of France, and rumours that the incarcerated prisoners in Paris were conspiring with the foreign enemy, raided the Parisian prisons and murdered between 1, and 1, prisoners , many of them Catholic priests but also common criminals.

Jean-Paul Marat , a political ally of Robespierre, in an open letter on 3 September incited the rest of France to follow the Parisian example; Robespierre kept a low profile in regard to the murder orgy.

The Commune then sent a circular letter to the other cities of France inviting them to follow this example, and many cities launched their own massacres of prisoners and priests in the "September massacres".

The Assembly could offer only feeble resistance. In October, however, there was a counterattack accusing the instigators, especially Marat, of being terrorists.

This led to a political contest between the more moderate Girondists and the more radical Montagnards inside the Convention, with rumour used as a weapon by both sides.

The Girondists lost ground when they seemed too conciliatory. But the pendulum swung again and after Thermidor, the men who had endorsed the massacres were denounced as terrorists.

Chaos persisted until the Convention , elected by universal male suffrage and charged with writing a new constitution, met on 20 September and became the new de facto government of France.

The next day it abolished the monarchy and declared a republic. The following day — 22 September , the first morning of the new Republic — was later retroactively adopted as the beginning of Year One of the French Republican Calendar.

From to France was engaged almost continuously with two short breaks in wars with Britain and a changing coalition of other major powers. The many French successes led to the spread of the French revolutionary ideals into neighbouring countries, and indeed across much of Europe.

However, the final defeat of Napoleon in and brought a reaction that reversed some — but not all — of the revolutionary achievements in France and Europe.

The politics of the period inevitably drove France towards war with Austria and its allies. The King, many of the Feuillants, and the Girondins specifically wanted to wage war.

The King and many Feuillants with him expected war would increase his personal popularity; he also foresaw an opportunity to exploit any defeat: The Girondins wanted to export the Revolution throughout Europe and, by extension, to defend the Revolution within France.

The forces opposing war were much weaker. Barnave and his supporters among the Feuillants feared a war they thought France had little chance to win and which they feared might lead to greater radicalisation of the revolution.

On the other end of the political spectrum Robespierre opposed a war on two grounds , fearing that it would strengthen the monarchy and military at the expense of the revolution, and that it would incur the anger of ordinary people in Austria and elsewhere.

The invading Prussian army faced little resistance until it was checked at the Battle of Valmy 20 September and forced to withdraw. The new-born Republic followed up on this success with a series of victories in Belgium and the Rhineland in the fall of The French armies defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Jemappes on 6 November, and had soon taken over most of the Austrian Netherlands.

This brought them into conflict with Britain and the Dutch Republic , which wished to preserve the independence of the southern Netherlands from France.

Almost immediately, French forces suffered defeats on many fronts, and were driven out of their newly conquered territories in the spring of At the same time, the republican regime was forced to deal with rebellions against its authority in much of western and southern France.

But the allies failed to take advantage of French disunity, and by the autumn of the republican regime had defeated most of the internal rebellions and halted the allied advance into France itself.

This stalemate ended in the summer of with dramatic French victories. The French defeated the allied army at the Battle of Fleurus , leading to a full Allied withdrawal from the Austrian Netherlands.

They pushed the allies to the east bank of the Rhine, allowing France, by the beginning of , to conquer the Dutch Republic itself.

These victories led to the collapse of the anti-French coalition. Prussia, having effectively abandoned the coalition in the fall of , made peace with revolutionary France at Basel in April , and soon thereafter Spain also made peace with France.

Britain and Austria were the only major powers to remain at war with France. Although the French Revolution had a dramatic impact in numerous areas of Europe, the French colonies felt a particular influence.

Late in August , elections were held, now under male universal suffrage , for the new National Convention , [] which replaced the Legislative Assembly on 20 September In the Brunswick Manifesto , the Imperial and Prussian armies threatened retaliation on the French population if it were to resist their advance or the reinstatement of the monarchy.

This among other things made Louis appear to be conspiring with the enemies of France. On 17 January Louis was condemned to death for "conspiracy against the public liberty and the general safety" by a close majority in Convention: This encouraged the Jacobins to seize power through a parliamentary coup , backed up by force effected by mobilising public support against the Girondist faction, and by utilising the mob power of the Parisian sans-culottes.

An alliance of Jacobin and sans-culottes elements thus became the effective centre of the new government. Policy became considerably more radical, as "The Law of the Maximum" set food prices and led to executions of offenders.

The price control policy was coeval with the rise to power of the Committee of Public Safety and the Reign of Terror. The Committee first attempted to set the price for only a limited number of grain products, but by September it expanded the "maximum" to cover all foodstuffs and a long list of other goods.

The Committee reacted by sending dragoons into the countryside to arrest farmers and seize crops. This temporarily solved the problem in Paris, but the rest of the country suffered.

By the spring of , forced collection of food was not sufficient to feed even Paris, and the days of the Committee were numbered. When Robespierre went to the guillotine in July , the crowd jeered, "There goes the dirty maximum!

According to archival records, at least 16, people died under the guillotine or otherwise after accusations of counter-revolutionary activities.

Following these arrests, the Jacobins gained control of the Committee of Public Safety on 10 June, installing the revolutionary dictatorship.

On 24 June, the Convention adopted the first republican constitution of France, variously referred to as the French Constitution of or Constitution of the Year I.

It was progressive and radical in several respects, in particular by establishing universal male suffrage. It was ratified by public referendum, but normal legal processes were suspended before it could take effect.

The Reign of Terror ultimately weakened the revolutionary government, while temporarily ending internal opposition.

The Jacobins expanded the size of the army, and Carnot replaced many aristocratic officers with soldiers who had demonstrated their patriotism, if not their ability.

At the end of , the army began to prevail and revolts were defeated with ease. However, this policy was never fully implemented. Three approaches attempt to explain the Reign of Terror imposed by the Jacobins in — The older Marxist interpretation argued the Terror was a necessary response to outside threats in terms of other countries going to war with France and internal threats of traitors inside France threatening to frustrate the Revolution.

In this interpretation, as expressed by the Marxist historian Albert Soboul , Robespierre and the sans-culottes were heroes for defending the revolution from its enemies.

Hanson takes a middle position, recognising the importance of the foreign enemies, and sees the terror as a contingency that was caused by the interaction of a series of complex events and the foreign threat.

Hanson says the terror was not inherent in the ideology of the Revolution, but that circumstances made it necessary. North of the Loire , similar revolts were started by the so-called Chouans royalist rebels.

While that committee consisted only of members from la Plaine and the Girondins , the anger of the sans-culottes was directed towards the Girondins.

Crowds of people swarmed in and around the palace. Incessant screaming from the public galleries suggested that all of Paris was against the Girondins.

Petitions circulated, indicting and condemning 22 Girondins. Late that night after much more tumultuous debate, dozens of Girondins had resigned and left the Convention.

By the summer of , most French departments in one way or another opposed the central Paris government. Girondins who fled from Paris after 2 June led those revolts.

In August—September , militants urged the Convention to do more to quell the counter-revolution. A delegation of the Commune Paris city council suggested to form revolutionary armies to arrest hoarders and conspirators.

Criteria for bringing someone before the Revolutionary Tribunal , created March , had always been vast and vague. Meanwhile, the instalment of the Republican Calendar on 24 October caused an anti-clerical uprising.

The climax was reached with the celebration of the flame of Reason in Notre Dame Cathedral on 10 November. Because of the extremely brutal forms that the Republican repression took in many places, historians such as Reynald Secher have called the event a "genocide".

The guillotine became the tool for a string of executions. The Revolutionary Tribunal summarily condemned thousands of people to death by the guillotine, while mobs beat other victims to death.

In the rebellious provinces, the government representatives had unlimited authority and some engaged in extreme repressions and abuses.

For example, Jean-Baptiste Carrier became notorious for the Noyades "drownings" he organised in Nantes ; [] his conduct was judged unacceptable even by the Jacobin government and he was recalled.

On 5 April, again at the instigation of Robespierre, Danton , a moderate Montagnard , and 13 associated politicians, charged with counter-revolutionary activities, [] were executed.

This hushed the Convention deputies: On 7 June , Robespierre advocated a new state religion and recommended the Convention acknowledge the existence of the "Supreme Being".

The frequency of guillotine executions in Paris now rose from on average three a day to an average of 29 a day.

This encouraged other Convention members to also defy Robespierre. A decree was adopted to arrest Robespierre , Saint-Just and Couthon.

After July , most civilians henceforth ignored the Republican calendar and returned to the traditional seven-day weeks. The government in a law of 21 February set steps of return to freedom of religion and reconciliation with the since refractory Catholic priests, but any religious signs outside churches or private homes, such as crosses, clerical garb, bell ringing, remained prohibited.

In the very cold winter of —95, with the French army demanding more and more bread, same was getting scarce in Paris as was wood to keep houses warm, and in an echo of the October March on Versailles , on 1 April 12 Germinal III a mostly female crowd marched on the Convention calling for bread.

But no Convention member sympathized, they just told the women to return home. Again in May a crowd of 20, men and 40, women invaded the Convention and even killed a deputy in the halls, but again they failed to make the Convention take notice of the needs of the lower classes.

Instead, the Convention banned women from all political assemblies, and deputies who had solidarized with this insurrection were sentenced to death: Late , France conquered present-day Belgium.

A French plebiscite ratified the document, with about 1,, votes for the constitution and 49, against. Directory with a bicameral legislature.

Each year, one-third of the chambers was to be renewed. The executive power was in the hands of the five members directors of the Directory with a five-year mandate.

The early directors did not much understand the nation they were governing; they especially had an innate inability to see Catholicism as anything else than counter-revolutionary and royalist.

The Directory denounced the arbitrary executions of the Reign of Terror, but itself engaged in large scale illegal repressions, as well as large-scale massacres of civilians in the Vendee uprising.

The economy continued in bad condition, with the poor especially hurt by the high cost of food. State finances were in total disarray; the government could only cover its expenses through the plunder and the tribute of foreign countries.

If peace were made, the armies would return home and the directors would have to face the exasperation of the rank-and-file who had lost their livelihood, as well as the ambition of generals who could, in a moment, brush them aside.

Barras and Rewbell were notoriously corrupt themselves and screened corruption in others. The patronage of the directors was ill-bestowed, and the general maladministration heightened their unpopularity.

The directors baffled all such endeavours. On the other hand, the socialist conspiracy of Babeuf was easily quelled.

Little was done to improve the finances, and the assignats continued to fall in value until each note was worth less than the paper it was printed on; debtors easily paid off their debts.

Although committed to Republicanism, the Directory distrusted democracy. It never had a strong base of popular support; when elections were held, most of its candidates were defeated.

Its achievements were minor. The election system was complex and designed to insulate the government from grass roots democracy. The parliament consisted of two houses: Executive power went to five "directors," named annually by the Conseil des Anciens from a list submitted by the Conseil des Cinq-Cents.

The universal male suffrage of was replaced by limited suffrage based on property. The voters had only a limited choice because the electoral rules required two-thirds of the seats go to members of the old Convention, no matter how few popular votes they received.

Citizens of the war-weary nation wanted stability, peace, and an end to conditions that at times bordered on chaos. Nevertheless, those on the right who wished to restore the monarchy by putting Louis XVIII on the throne, and those on the left who would have renewed the Reign of Terror, tried but failed to overthrow the Directory.

The earlier atrocities had made confidence or goodwill between parties impossible. The army suppressed riots and counter-revolutionary activities.

In this way the army and in particular Napoleon gained total power. Parliamentary elections in the spring of , for one-third of the seats in Parliament, resulted in considerable gains for the royalists, [] who seemed poised to take control of the Directory in the next elections.

This frightened the republican directors and they reacted, in the Coup of 18 Fructidor V 4 September , by purging all the winners banishing 57 leaders to certain death in Guiana, removing two supposedly pro-royalist directors, and closing 42 newspapers.

Not only citizens opposed and even mocked such decrees, also local government officials refused to enforce such laws.

When the elections of were again carried by the opposition, the Directory used the army to imprison and exile the opposition leaders and close their newspapers.

Napoleon, Sieyes, and Roger Ducos. The Army at first was quite successful. It conquered Belgium and turned it into a province of France; conquered the Netherlands and made it a puppet state; and conquered Switzerland and most of Italy, setting up a series of puppet states.

The result was glory for France and an infusion of much needed money from the conquered lands, which also provided direct support to the French Army.

The allies scored a series of victories that rolled back French successes, retaking Italy, Switzerland and the Netherlands and ending the flow of payments from the conquered areas to France.

The treasury was empty. Napoleon escaped by himself, returned to Paris and overthrew the Directory in November Napoleon conquered most of Italy in the name of the French Revolution in — He set up a series of new republics, complete with new codes of law and abolition of old feudal privileges.

Genoa the city became a republic while its hinterland became the Ligurian Republic. The Roman Republic was formed out of the papal holdings and the pope was sent to France.

The Neapolitan Republic was formed around Naples, but it lasted only five months before the enemy forces of the Coalition recaptured it. In Napoleon formed the Kingdom of Italy , with himself as king and his stepson as viceroy.

Their political and administrative systems were modernised, the metric system introduced, and trade barriers reduced. It educates both German - and French -speaking pupils from francophone countries all over the world.

Grades are from 5 to 12, bilingual classes and teaching starting in grade 7. The pupils can graduate with either of two diplomas though many Germans pass both: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

International schools in Germany. International schools in Germany by state and metropolitan region. International School Augsburg Regensburg: International School Hannover Region.

French international schools in Central Europe and Eastern Europe.

Französisches wikipedia - thanks for

So wuchs die Einwohnerzahl in knapp Jahren nur um drei Millionen: Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Parlamente in den europäischen Staaten. In den letzten Jahren hat die enorm hohe Zahl der Kommunen leicht abgenommen. Eine erneute bürgerliche Revolution brachte Frankreich die Zweite Republik. Saint-Ange frz, die gute Küche von Madame E. Besonders Rugby ist im Südwesten des Landes populärer. In den er Jahren investierte die neue sozialistische Regierung stark in die Kultur; Budgets für Filmproduktionen stiegen, während gleichzeitig die amerikanische Vorherrschaft bekämpft wurde. Kongress des Parlaments , werden traditionell im Schloss Versailles abgehalten. Die keltischen Gallier mit ihrer druidischen Religion werden heute häufig als Vorfahren der Franzosen gesehen und Vercingetorix zum ersten Nationalhelden Frankreichs verklärt, wenngleich kaum gallische Elemente in der französischen Kultur verblieben sind. Das Französische wurde zur dominierenden Bildungssprache. Die Romanisierung erfolgte in zwei Schritten. Dieser hatte versucht, den Artikel zunächst über die Wikimedia Foundation löschen zu lassen, und, nachdem diese der Aufforderung nicht nachgekommen war, einen der ehrenamtlich tätigen Administratoren der Wikipedia unter Androhung einer Strafanzeige zum Löschen des Artikels aufgefordert. Europäisches Parlament Souveräne Staaten: Frankreich erhielt zur Förderung des Wiederaufbaus unter anderem Unterstützungsleistungen aus dem Marshallplan ; [55] unter Ökonomen ist umstritten, ob diese volkswirtschaftlich nennenswerte Wirkungen hatten. Französisch ist eine indogermanische Sprache und gehört zu den galloromanischen Sprachen, die in zwei Gruppen unterteilt werden: Um die französische Sprache vor der Vereinnahmung durch Anglizismen zu schützen, wurde die Loi Toubon verabschiedet. In anderen Projekten Commons Französisches wikipedia. Jahrhunderts auch aus dem privaten Sprachgebrauch verdrängt; sabrina völler ähnliche Entwicklung widerfuhr dem Niederdeutschen mit dem Hochdeutschen in Norddeutschland. Diese Fünfte Republik wurde im Mai stark erschüttert, was langfristig kulturelle, politische und ökonomische 1 bundesliga torschützenkönig in Frankreich nach sich zog auch in Deutschland gab es die 68er-Bewegung. La France ne compte plus que 35 communes. Exporte Frankreichs englisch. In den er Jahren erweiterte Frankreich seine Atommacht auch auf See. Dabei zählte man Les Bleus zu den Hauptfavoriten auf den Titel. Die Einführung öffentlicher Restaurants und damit der Zugang des französischen Bürgertums zur gehobenen Kochkunst führte zur Popularisierung dieses Kochstils und seiner Verbreitung und Institutionalisierung. Frankreich nimmt auch in der Nuklearforschung eine führende Rolle ein: Während dieser wurden unter casino europa online gratis massive Verstaatlichungen vorangetrieben, die Todesstrafe abgeschafft, die Stunden-Woche eingeführt und beat the boss online casino Vertrag von Maastricht ratifiziert. Archived from the original on 4 July Archived from the original on 8 September The modern era has unfolded in the shadow beste casino bonus ohne einzahlung the French Revolution. Casino wiesbaden events regained owanda to the sea and grew quickly as a major port and business centre. West Cpa casino approximated the area occupied by, and was the precursor to, modern France. It also made several important reforms suffrage extended to women, creation of a social security system. Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world, [] although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States. Nonetheless, it does recognize religious associations. Edmund Burke responded in November with his own pamphlet, Reflections on the Persona 5 casino need coins in Franceattacking the French Revolution as a threat to the aristocracy of all countries. Resentment towards the Church weakened toto vorschau 13-er wette power during the opening of the Estates General in May Brown and Timothy Tackett, eds. The kings had so thoroughly centralised the system that most nobles spent their time at Versailles, and thus played only a small direct role in their home districts. The Civil 6 33 of the Clergypassed on 12 Julyturned the remaining clergy into employees of nein zu red bull state.

A delegation of the Commune Paris city council suggested to form revolutionary armies to arrest hoarders and conspirators. Criteria for bringing someone before the Revolutionary Tribunal , created March , had always been vast and vague.

Meanwhile, the instalment of the Republican Calendar on 24 October caused an anti-clerical uprising. The climax was reached with the celebration of the flame of Reason in Notre Dame Cathedral on 10 November.

Because of the extremely brutal forms that the Republican repression took in many places, historians such as Reynald Secher have called the event a "genocide".

The guillotine became the tool for a string of executions. The Revolutionary Tribunal summarily condemned thousands of people to death by the guillotine, while mobs beat other victims to death.

In the rebellious provinces, the government representatives had unlimited authority and some engaged in extreme repressions and abuses.

For example, Jean-Baptiste Carrier became notorious for the Noyades "drownings" he organised in Nantes ; [] his conduct was judged unacceptable even by the Jacobin government and he was recalled.

On 5 April, again at the instigation of Robespierre, Danton , a moderate Montagnard , and 13 associated politicians, charged with counter-revolutionary activities, [] were executed.

This hushed the Convention deputies: On 7 June , Robespierre advocated a new state religion and recommended the Convention acknowledge the existence of the "Supreme Being".

The frequency of guillotine executions in Paris now rose from on average three a day to an average of 29 a day. This encouraged other Convention members to also defy Robespierre.

A decree was adopted to arrest Robespierre , Saint-Just and Couthon. After July , most civilians henceforth ignored the Republican calendar and returned to the traditional seven-day weeks.

The government in a law of 21 February set steps of return to freedom of religion and reconciliation with the since refractory Catholic priests, but any religious signs outside churches or private homes, such as crosses, clerical garb, bell ringing, remained prohibited.

In the very cold winter of —95, with the French army demanding more and more bread, same was getting scarce in Paris as was wood to keep houses warm, and in an echo of the October March on Versailles , on 1 April 12 Germinal III a mostly female crowd marched on the Convention calling for bread.

But no Convention member sympathized, they just told the women to return home. Again in May a crowd of 20, men and 40, women invaded the Convention and even killed a deputy in the halls, but again they failed to make the Convention take notice of the needs of the lower classes.

Instead, the Convention banned women from all political assemblies, and deputies who had solidarized with this insurrection were sentenced to death: Late , France conquered present-day Belgium.

A French plebiscite ratified the document, with about 1,, votes for the constitution and 49, against. Directory with a bicameral legislature. Each year, one-third of the chambers was to be renewed.

The executive power was in the hands of the five members directors of the Directory with a five-year mandate. The early directors did not much understand the nation they were governing; they especially had an innate inability to see Catholicism as anything else than counter-revolutionary and royalist.

The Directory denounced the arbitrary executions of the Reign of Terror, but itself engaged in large scale illegal repressions, as well as large-scale massacres of civilians in the Vendee uprising.

The economy continued in bad condition, with the poor especially hurt by the high cost of food. State finances were in total disarray; the government could only cover its expenses through the plunder and the tribute of foreign countries.

If peace were made, the armies would return home and the directors would have to face the exasperation of the rank-and-file who had lost their livelihood, as well as the ambition of generals who could, in a moment, brush them aside.

Barras and Rewbell were notoriously corrupt themselves and screened corruption in others. The patronage of the directors was ill-bestowed, and the general maladministration heightened their unpopularity.

The directors baffled all such endeavours. On the other hand, the socialist conspiracy of Babeuf was easily quelled. Little was done to improve the finances, and the assignats continued to fall in value until each note was worth less than the paper it was printed on; debtors easily paid off their debts.

Although committed to Republicanism, the Directory distrusted democracy. It never had a strong base of popular support; when elections were held, most of its candidates were defeated.

Its achievements were minor. The election system was complex and designed to insulate the government from grass roots democracy. The parliament consisted of two houses: Executive power went to five "directors," named annually by the Conseil des Anciens from a list submitted by the Conseil des Cinq-Cents.

The universal male suffrage of was replaced by limited suffrage based on property. The voters had only a limited choice because the electoral rules required two-thirds of the seats go to members of the old Convention, no matter how few popular votes they received.

Citizens of the war-weary nation wanted stability, peace, and an end to conditions that at times bordered on chaos. Nevertheless, those on the right who wished to restore the monarchy by putting Louis XVIII on the throne, and those on the left who would have renewed the Reign of Terror, tried but failed to overthrow the Directory.

The earlier atrocities had made confidence or goodwill between parties impossible. The army suppressed riots and counter-revolutionary activities.

In this way the army and in particular Napoleon gained total power. Parliamentary elections in the spring of , for one-third of the seats in Parliament, resulted in considerable gains for the royalists, [] who seemed poised to take control of the Directory in the next elections.

This frightened the republican directors and they reacted, in the Coup of 18 Fructidor V 4 September , by purging all the winners banishing 57 leaders to certain death in Guiana, removing two supposedly pro-royalist directors, and closing 42 newspapers.

Not only citizens opposed and even mocked such decrees, also local government officials refused to enforce such laws. When the elections of were again carried by the opposition, the Directory used the army to imprison and exile the opposition leaders and close their newspapers.

Napoleon, Sieyes, and Roger Ducos. The Army at first was quite successful. It conquered Belgium and turned it into a province of France; conquered the Netherlands and made it a puppet state; and conquered Switzerland and most of Italy, setting up a series of puppet states.

The result was glory for France and an infusion of much needed money from the conquered lands, which also provided direct support to the French Army.

The allies scored a series of victories that rolled back French successes, retaking Italy, Switzerland and the Netherlands and ending the flow of payments from the conquered areas to France.

The treasury was empty. Napoleon escaped by himself, returned to Paris and overthrew the Directory in November Napoleon conquered most of Italy in the name of the French Revolution in — He set up a series of new republics, complete with new codes of law and abolition of old feudal privileges.

Genoa the city became a republic while its hinterland became the Ligurian Republic. The Roman Republic was formed out of the papal holdings and the pope was sent to France.

The Neapolitan Republic was formed around Naples, but it lasted only five months before the enemy forces of the Coalition recaptured it.

In Napoleon formed the Kingdom of Italy , with himself as king and his stepson as viceroy. Their political and administrative systems were modernised, the metric system introduced, and trade barriers reduced.

Jewish ghettos were abolished. Belgium and Piedmont became integral parts of France. Most of the new nations were abolished and returned to prewar owners in However, Artz emphasises the benefits the Italians gained from the French Revolution:.

For nearly two decades the Italians had the excellent codes of law, a fair system of taxation, a better economic situation, and more religious and intellectual toleration than they had known for centuries Everywhere old physical, economic, and intellectual barriers had been thrown down and the Italians had begun to be aware of a common nationality.

In the Old regime there were a small number of heavily censored newspapers that needed a royal licence to operate. Newspapers and pamphlets played a central role in stimulating and defining the Revolution.

The meetings of the Estates-General in created an enormous demand for news, and over newspapers appeared by the end of the year.

The next decade saw 2, newspapers founded, with in Paris alone. Most lasted only a matter of weeks. Together they became the main communication medium, combined with the very large pamphlet literature.

The press saw its lofty role to be the advancement of civic republicanism based on public service, and downplayed the liberal, individualistic goal of making a profit.

Symbolism was a device to distinguish the main features of the Revolution and ensure public identification and support. In order to effectively illustrate the differences between the new Republic and the old regime, the leaders needed to implement a new set of symbols to be celebrated instead of the old religious and monarchical symbolism.

To this end, symbols were borrowed from historic cultures and redefined, while those of the old regime were either destroyed or reattributed acceptable characteristics.

These revised symbols were used to instil in the public a new sense of tradition and reverence for the Enlightenment and the Republic.

It acquired its nickname after being sung in Paris by volunteers from Marseille marching on the capital.

The song is the first example of the "European march" anthemic style. Hanson notes, "The guillotine stands as the principal symbol of the Terror in the French Revolution.

Vendors sold programmes listing the names of those scheduled to die. Many people came day after day and vied for the best locations from which to observe the proceedings; knitting women tricoteuses formed a cadre of hardcore regulars, inciting the crowd.

Parents often brought their children. By the end of the Terror, the crowds had thinned drastically. Repetition had staled even this most grisly of entertainments, and audiences grew bored.

Cockades were widely worn by revolutionaries beginning in The tricolour flag is derived from the cockades used in the s.

These were circular rosette-like emblems attached to the hat. Camille Desmoulins asked his followers to wear green cockades on 12 July The Paris militia, formed on 13 July, adopted a blue and red cockade.

Cockades with various colour schemes were used during the storming of the Bastille on 14 July. Lafayette argued for the addition of a white stripe to "nationalise" the design.

Fasces are Roman in origin and suggest Roman Republicanism. Fasces are a bundle of birch rods containing an axe.

The French Republic continued this Roman symbol to represent state power, justice, and unity. The Liberty cap, also known as the Phrygian cap , or pileus , is a brimless, felt cap that is conical in shape with the tip pulled forward.

It reflects Roman republicanism and liberty, alluding to the Roman ritual of manumission of slaves, in which a freed slave receives the bonnet as a symbol of his newfound liberty.

Historians since the late 20th century have debated how women shared in the French Revolution and what long-term impact it had on French women.

Women had no political rights in pre-Revolutionary France; they were considered "passive" citizens; forced to rely on men to determine what was best for them.

That changed dramatically in theory as there seemingly were great advances in feminism. Feminism emerged in Paris as part of a broad demand for social and political reform.

The women demanded equality for women and then moved on to a demand for the end of male domination. The movement was crushed. When the Revolution opened, groups of women acted forcefully, making use of the volatile political climate.

Women forced their way into the political sphere. They swore oaths of loyalty, "solemn declarations of patriotic allegiance, [and] affirmations of the political responsibilities of citizenship.

The March to Versailles is but one example of feminist militant activism during the French Revolution. The Society of Revolutionary Republican Women, a militant group on the far left, demanded a law in that would compel all women to wear the tricolour cockade to demonstrate their loyalty to the Republic.

They also demanded vigorous price controls to keep bread — the major food of the poor people — from becoming too expensive. After the Convention passage law in September , the Revolutionary Republican Women demanded vigorous enforcement, but were counted by market women, former servants, and religious women who adamantly opposed price controls which would drive them out of business and resented attacks on the aristocracy and on religion.

Fist fights broke out in the streets between the two factions of women. Meanwhile, the men who controlled the Jacobins rejected the Revolutionary Republican Women as dangerous rabble-rousers.

They sternly reminded women to stay home and tend to their families by leaving public affairs to the men. Organised women were permanently shut out of the French Revolution after 30 October Olympe de Gouges wrote a number of plays, short stories, and novels.

In her "Declaration on the Rights of Woman" she insisted that women deserved rights, especially in areas concerning them directly, such as divorce and recognition of illegitimate children.

Manon or Marie Roland was another important female activist. Her political focus was not specifically on women or their liberation.

She focused on other aspects of the government, but was a feminist by virtue of the fact that she was a woman working to influence the world.

Her personal letters to leaders of the Revolution influenced policy; in addition, she often hosted political gatherings of the Brissotins, a political group which allowed women to join.

As she was led to the scaffold, Madame Roland shouted "O liberty! What crimes are committed in thy name! Most of these activists were punished for their actions.

Many of the women of the Revolution were even publicly executed for "conspiring against the unity and the indivisibility of the Republic". A major aspect of the French Revolution was the dechristianisation movement, a movement strongly rejected by many devout people.

Especially for women living in rural areas of France, the closing of the churches meant a loss of normalcy. When these revolutionary changes to the Church were implemented, it sparked a counter-revolutionary movement among women.

Although some of these women embraced the political and social amendments of the Revolution, they opposed the dissolution of the Catholic Church and the formation of revolutionary cults like the Cult of the Supreme Being.

Counter-revolutionary women resisted what they saw as the intrusion of the state into their lives. By far the most important issue to counter-revolutionary women was the passage and the enforcement of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in In response to this measure, women in many areas began circulating anti-oath pamphlets and refused to attend masses held by priests who had sworn oaths of loyalty to the Republic.

These women continued to adhere to traditional practices such as Christian burials and naming their children after saints in spite of revolutionary decrees to the contrary.

The French Revolution abolished many of the constraints on the economy that had slowed growth during the ancien regime. It abolished tithes owed to local churches as well as feudal dues owed to local landlords.

The result hurt the tenants, who paid both higher rents and higher taxes. It planned to use these seized lands to finance the government by issuing assignats.

It abolished the guild system as a worthless remnant of feudalism. The government seized the foundations that had been set up starting in the 13th century to provide an annual stream of revenue for hospitals, poor relief, and education.

The economy did poorly in —96 as industrial and agricultural output dropped, foreign trade plunged, and prices soared. The government decided not to repudiate the old debts.

Instead it issued more and more paper money called "assignat" that supposedly were grounded seized lands. The result was escalating inflation.

The government imposed price controls and persecuted speculators and traders in the black market. The assignats were withdrawn in but the replacements also fuelled inflation.

The inflation was finally ended by Napoleon in with the franc as the new currency. Napoleon after paid for his expensive wars by multiple means, starting with the modernisation of the rickety financial system.

The French Revolution had a major impact on Europe and the New World , decisively changing the course of human history. Otto Dann and John Dinwiddy report, "It has long been almost a truism of European history that the French Revolution gave a great stimulus to the growth of modern nationalism.

Hayes as a major result of the French Revolution across Europe. The impact on French nationalism was profound. For example, Napoleon became such a heroic symbol of the nation that the glory was easily picked up by his nephew, who was overwhelmingly elected president and later became Emperor Napoleon III.

The changes in France were enormous; some were widely accepted and others were bitterly contested into the late 20th century. The kings had so thoroughly centralised the system that most nobles spent their time at Versailles, and thus played only a small direct role in their home districts.

Thompson says that the kings had "ruled by virtue of their personal wealth, their patronage of the nobility, their disposal of ecclesiastical offices, their provincial governors intendants their control over the judges and magistrates, and their command of the Army.

After the first year of revolution, the power of the king had been stripped away, he was left a mere figurehead, the nobility had lost all their titles and most of their land, the Church lost its monasteries and farmlands, bishops, judges and magistrates were elected by the people, and the army was almost helpless, with military power in the hands of the new revolutionary National Guard.

The central elements of were the slogan "Liberty, Equality and Fraternity" and " The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen ", which Lefebvre calls "the incarnation of the Revolution as a whole.

The long-term impact on France was profound, shaping politics, society, religion and ideas, and polarising politics for more than a century.

The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting all humanity. The most heated controversy was over the status of the Catholic Church.

The movement to dechristianise France not only failed but aroused a furious reaction among the pious. Priests and bishops were given salaries as part of a department of government controlled by Paris, not Rome.

Protestants and Jews gained equal rights. They raged into the 20th century. By the 21st century, angry debates exploded over the presence of any Muslim religious symbols in schools, such as the headscarves for which Muslim girls could be expelled.

Christopher Soper and Joel S. Fetzer explicitly link the conflict over religious symbols in public to the French Revolution, when the target was Catholic rituals and symbols.

The revolutionary government seized the charitable foundations that had been set up starting in the 13th century to provide an annual stream of revenue for hospitals, poor relief, and education.

In the ancien regime, new opportunities for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles on their own estates.

During the Revolution, most of the orders of nuns were shut down and there was no organised nursing care to replace them. They were tolerated by officials because they had widespread support and were the link between elite male physicians and distrustful peasants who needed help.

Two thirds of France was employed in agriculture, which was transformed by the Revolution. With the breakup of large estates controlled by the Church and the nobility and worked by hired hands, rural France became more a land of small independent farms.

Harvest taxes were ended, such as the tithe and seigneurial dues, much to the relief of the peasants. Primogeniture was ended both for nobles and peasants, thereby weakening the family patriarch.

In the cities, entrepreneurship on a small scale flourished, as restrictive monopolies, privileges, barriers, rules, taxes and guilds gave way.

However, the British blockade virtually ended overseas and colonial trade, hurting the port cities and their supply chains. Overall, the Revolution did not greatly change the French business system, and probably helped freeze in place the horizons of the small business owner.

The typical businessman owned a small store, mill or shop, with family help and a few paid employees; large-scale industry was less common than in other industrialising nations.

A National Bureau of Economic Research paper found that the emigration of more than , individuals predominantly supporters of the Old Regime during the Revolution had a significant negative impact on income per capita in the 19th century due to the fragmentation of agricultural holdings but became positive in the second half of the 20th century onward because it facilitated the rise in human capital investments.

The Revolution meant an end to arbitrary royal rule and held out the promise of rule by law under a constitutional order, but it did not rule out a monarch.

Napoleon as emperor set up a constitutional system although he remained in full control , and the restored Bourbons were forced to go along with one.

After the abdication of Napoleon III in , the monarchists probably had a voting majority, but they were so factionalised they could not agree on who should be king, and instead the French Third Republic was launched with a deep commitment to upholding the ideals of the Revolution.

Vichy denied the principle of equality and tried to replace the Revolutionary watchwords "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" with "Work, Family, and Fatherland.

France permanently became a society of equals under the law. The Jacobin cause was picked up by Marxists in the midth century and became an element of communist thought around the world.

In the Soviet Union , "Gracchus" Babeuf was regarded as a hero. Robinson the French Revolution had long-term effects in Europe.

They suggest that "areas that were occupied by the French and that underwent radical institutional reform experienced more rapid urbanization and economic growth, especially after There is no evidence of a negative effect of French invasion.

A study in the European Economic Review found that the areas of Germany that were occupied by France in the 19th century and in which the Code Napoleon was applied have higher levels of trust and cooperation today.

From this moment we may consider France as a free country, the King a very limited monarch, and the nobility as reduced to a level with the rest of the nation.

Britain led and funded the series of coalitions that fought France from to , and then restored the Bourbons. Philosophically and politically, Britain was in debate over the rights and wrongs of revolution, in the abstract and in practicalities.

The Revolution Controversy was a " pamphlet war " set off by the publication of A Discourse on the Love of Our Country , a speech given by Richard Price to the Revolution Society on 4 November , supporting the French Revolution as he had the American Revolution , and saying that patriotism actually centers around loving the people and principles of a nation, not its ruling class.

Edmund Burke responded in November with his own pamphlet, Reflections on the Revolution in France , attacking the French Revolution as a threat to the aristocracy of all countries.

In Christopher Wyvill published Defence of Dr. Price and the Reformers of England , a plea for reform and moderation. This exchange of ideas has been described as "one of the great political debates in British history".

In Ireland, the effect was to transform what had been an attempt by Protestant settlers to gain some autonomy into a mass movement led by the Society of United Irishmen involving Catholics and Protestants.

It stimulated the demand for further reform throughout Ireland, especially in Ulster. The upshot was a revolt in , led by Wolfe Tone , that was crushed by Britain.

German reaction to the Revolution swung from favourable to antagonistic. At first it brought liberal and democratic ideas, the end of gilds, serfdom and the Jewish ghetto.

It brought economic freedoms and agrarian and legal reform. Above all the antagonism helped stimulate and shape German nationalism.

The French invaded Switzerland and turned it into an ally known as the " Helvetic Republic " — The interference with localism and traditional liberties was deeply resented, although some modernising reforms took place.

The region of modern-day Belgium was divided between two polities: Both territories experienced revolutions in Both failed to attract international support.

During the Revolutionary Wars, the French invaded and occupied the region between and , a time known as the French period.

The new government enforced new reforms, incorporating the region into France itself. New rulers were sent in by Paris. Belgian men were drafted into the French wars and heavily taxed.

Nearly everyone was Catholic, but the Church was repressed. Resistance was strong in every sector, as Belgian nationalism emerged to oppose French rule.

The French legal system, however, was adopted, with its equal legal rights, and abolition of class distinctions. Belgium now had a government bureaucracy selected by merit.

Antwerp regained access to the sea and grew quickly as a major port and business centre. France promoted commerce and capitalism, paving the way for the ascent of the bourgeoisie and the rapid growth of manufacturing and mining.

The Kingdom of Denmark adopted liberalising reforms in line with those of the French Revolution, with no direct contact.

Reform was gradual and the regime itself carried out agrarian reforms that had the effect of weakening absolutism by creating a class of independent peasant freeholders.

Much of the initiative came from well-organised liberals who directed political change in the first half of the 19th century.

The Revolution deeply polarised American politics, and this polarisation led to the creation of the First Party System.

In , as war broke out in Europe, the Republican Party led by Thomas Jefferson favoured France and pointed to the treaty that was still in effect.

George Washington and his unanimous cabinet, including Jefferson, decided that the treaty did not bind the United States to enter the war.

Washington proclaimed neutrality instead. Jefferson became president in , but was hostile to Napoleon as a dictator and emperor. However, the two entered negotiations over the Louisiana Territory and agreed to the Louisiana Purchase in , an acquisition that substantially increased the size of the United States.

The French Revolution has received enormous amounts of historical attention, both from the general public and from scholars and academics. The views of historians, in particular, have been characterised as falling along ideological lines, with disagreement over the significance and the major developments of the Revolution.

Historians until the late 20th century emphasised class conflicts from a largely Marxist perspective as the fundamental driving cause of the Revolution.

By the year many historians were saying that the field of the French Revolution was in intellectual disarray. The old model or paradigm focusing on class conflict has been discredited, and no new explanatory model had gained widespread support.

Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in history. It marks the end of the early modern period , which started around and is often seen as marking the "dawn of the modern era ".

After the collapse of the First Empire in , the French public lost the rights and privileges earned since the Revolution, but they remembered the participatory politics that characterised the period, with one historian commenting: Revolution became a tradition, and republicanism an enduring option.

Some historians argue that the French people underwent a fundamental transformation in self-identity, evidenced by the elimination of privileges and their replacement by rights as well as the growing decline in social deference that highlighted the principle of equality throughout the Revolution.

This, combined with the egalitarian values introduced by the revolution, gave rise to a classless and co-operative model for society called " socialism " which profoundly influenced future revolutions in France and around the world.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see French Revolution disambiguation. The Storming of the Bastille , 14 July Part of a series on the.

Direct Capetians — Valois — Causes of the French Revolution. Estates General of in France. National Assembly French Revolution. National Constituent Assembly France.

Storming of the Bastille. Abolition of feudalism in France. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. French Constitution of Divine right of kings Mandate of Heaven.

Trienio Liberal First French Empire. Liberal Wars Second French Empire. Italian unification Meiji Restoration. Xinhai Revolution Russian Revolution.

Iranian Revolution Modern Cambodia. Communitarianism Democracy Liberalism Monarchism. French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.

Execution of Louis XVI. Symbolism in the French Revolution. The French national anthem La Marseillaise ; text in French.

Influence of the French Revolution. Historiography of the French Revolution. List of political groups in the French Revolution. Making Democracy in the French Revolution p.

This was the truly original contribution of the Revolution to modern political culture. Frey and Marsha L.

Frey, The French Revolution , Foreword. A History of the Modern World , pp. A History of the Modern World , p. Transaction Publishers, , pp.

Aulard in Arthur Tilley, ed. A Companion to French Studies. The First Total War: The French Revolution in Global Perspective , pp.

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University of California Press. The origins of the French revolution. Class War or Culture Clash? Revolution and Political Conflict in the French Navy — Cambridge University Press, Notes on the French Revolution and Napoleon.

University of Chicago Press, Journal of Interdisciplinary History Journal of interdisciplinary history Retrieved 26 October A very short introduction , p.

A Documentary Survey of the French Revolution. From its Origins to pp. Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, Revolutie en Keizerrijk Revolution and Empire.

Veen Media, Amsterdam, Faith, Desire, and Politics. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy summer —spring A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution pp.

Thompson, The French Revolution , pp. Exploring the French Revolution p. Exploring the French Revolution, p. Exploring the French Revolution, Routledge, London and New York, Exploring the French Revolution , pp.

Censer, "Historians Revisit the Terror — Again". Journal of Social History 48 2 The Making of the West. Aristocracy and its Enemies in the Age of Revolution.

The flight of the king and the decline of the French monarchy summer —summer Retrieved 22 January The end of the monarchy and the September Murders The Path to Power — A Companion to the French Revolution.

Retrieved 8 February The end of the monarchy and the September Murders summer—fall Sonthonax to Victor Schoelcher, , , Paris: The new French republic and its enemies fall —summer A History of Modern Britain: The Oxford History of the French Revolution.

The Terror in the French Revolution. The New York Times. The Reign of Terror fall —summer Gottschalk, The Era of the French Revolution — p.

Retrieved 21 April Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 6 March Archived from the original PDF on 17 January A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution , p.

University of California Press, Facts on File Publications, A Chronicle of the French Revolution. Revolution in the Netherlands — HB uitgevers, Baarn, [] Ending the French Revolution: Violence, Justice, and Repression from the Terror to Napoleon.

Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe. Macmillan International Higher Education. Ross, European Diplomatic History, — Artz, Reaction and Revolution: The International Journal of Communication Ethics 2 1 pp.

Popkin, "The Press and the French revolution after two hundred years. The A to Z of the French Revolution. Rosenwein, and Bonnie G.

Since , 2nd ed. A Very Short Introduction. Paris, —," Eighteenth-Century Studies , , p. Cooper and John McCardell. The French Revolution and Human Rights.

McMillan, France and women, — Women in Revolutionary Paris, — pp. The Case of Madame Roland," Canadian journal of history 36 2 pp.

Sutherland, "Peasants, Lords, and Leviathan: Crouzet, "The role of assignats during the French Revolution: An evil or a rescuer?

Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution: The Struggle, Volume II: Global Ramifications of the French Revolution.

Nationalism in the Age of the French Revolution. The Paradoxes of Nationalism: Thompson, Robespierre and the French Revolution p.

The Coming of the French Revolution. Muslims in Western Politics. Economies, Societes, Civilisations 32 5 pp. However, despite all nationalist efforts, the French language remained the medium of teaching.

After the school was evacuated from Berlin and the historic school building on Reichstagsufer was destroyed in After the war, the school moved to the Wedding district in the French sector of what was to become West Berlin.

Several of its pupils though not all graduated became prominent in later life, among them the poet Adalbert von Chamisso , the authors Maximilian Harden and Kurt Tucholsky , the engineer Walter Dornberger and the resistance fighter Adam von Trott zu Solz , the songwriters Reinhard Mey and Ulrich Roski , as well as political scientist Gesine Schwan , the presidential candidate of the Social Democratic Party of Germany in It educates both German - and French -speaking pupils from francophone countries all over the world.

Grades are from 5 to 12, bilingual classes and teaching starting in grade 7. The pupils can graduate with either of two diplomas though many Germans pass both: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

International schools in Germany. International schools in Germany by state and metropolitan region. International School Augsburg Regensburg: International School Hannover Region.

French international schools in Central Europe and Eastern Europe. Gustave Eiffel French School of Budapest.

It stimulated the demand for further reform throughout Ireland, especially in Ulster. Marxism and the Revisionist Challenge. Archived from the original on 18 January French cuisine is also französisches wikipedia as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France. This change was then reflected in the orthography: Louis XV — ". Persian and Sanskrit 2. At the end of the last glacial period 10, BCthe climate became milder; [27] from approximately 7, BC, this part of Western Europe entered the Neolithic era and its inhabitants casino royale in concert 2019 sedentary. Instead it issued more and more paper money called "assignat" that supposedly were online casino usa android seized also übersetzung deutsch. Encyclopedia Of World War I: As she was led to the scaffold, Madame Roland shouted "O liberty! Im offiziellen Gebrauch blieb Latein aber noch jahrhundertelang dominant. August um Mittlerweile vertreten jedoch einige Kulturhistoriker die Ansicht, dass diese Darstellung eine moderne Legende ist und der Einfluss Katharina von Medicis weit überschätzt wird. Um book of ra trick Wortstämme wurden von den Franken übernommen z. Nachdem Wilhelm der Eroberer im Kroatien forum den englischen Thron bestiegen hatte, wurde das normannische Französisch für zwei Jahrhunderte die Sprache des real dieburg Adels.

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