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Rough results of the first round of the French presidential election Population density in french departements Belfort Territoire de Belfort.
National parks of France. World Heritage Sites in France. Canal du Midi Occitania. Abbey of la Madaleine. Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans.
Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe. Palais des Papes Avignon. Port of the Moon Bordeaux. Neuf-Brisach Fortification de Vauban. Beaches of France and Coasts of France.
Forest of la Coubre. Universities and colleges in France. Town halls in France. Porte des Allemands Metz. Ruines romaines de Glanum.
Ponts Couverts, Strasbourg Strasbourg. Religious buildings in France. Notre Dame de Paris. Monasteries in France and Abbeys in France.
Grand Mosque of Paris. Ancient Roman architecture in France. Romanesque art in France. Gothic art in France. Renaissance art in France.
Baroque art in France. Art Nouveau in France. Modern movement architecture in France. Venus of Brassempouy July Column place de la Bastille , Paris.
Voltaire Naked Louvre Museum, Paris. Equestrian statue of Vercingetorix place de Jaude , Clermont-Ferrand.
Maurice Quentin de La Tour. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon. Biscuit rose de Reims. The feast of the main stream. Festival Interceltique de Lorient.
Henry IV of France. Louis XIV of France. Louis XV of France. Storming of the Bastille. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette.
Louis Antoine de Saint-Just. The Coronation of Napoleon. In the World Cup final stages, the team continued to perform under expectations and were eliminated in the group stage, while the negative publicity the national team received during the competition led to further repercussions back in France.
Domenech, whose contract already expired, was succeeded as head coach by former international Laurent Blanc. At Euro in Poland and Ukraine, France reached the quarter-finals, where they were beaten by eventual champions Spain.
France automatically qualified as hosts for Euro A brace from Antoine Griezmann , however, helped France to win the match 2—1 and qualify for the quarter-finals , where they beat a resilient Iceland 5—2 to set up a semi-final clash against world champions and tournament co-favourites Germany.
Griezmann was named the Player of the Tournament and was also awarded the Golden Boot in addition to being named in the Team of the Tournament , alongside Dimitri Payet.
The defeat meant that France became the second nation to have lost the final on home soil, after Portugal lost the final to Greece in In FIFA World Cup qualifying , France topped their group with 23 points; winning 7 wins, drawing 2 and losing once,  although their two draws were against considerably weaker nations, drawing 0—0 with Belarus in their opening match  and against Luxembourg, failing to secure a win against the latter since , nearly years.
Following the renovation of the Parc des Princes in , which gave the stadium the largest capacity in Paris, France moved into the venue permanently.
Both matches were friendlies. Located in Saint-Denis , a Parisian suburb, the stadium has an all-seater capacity of 81, France won the match 1—0, with Zinedine Zidane scoring the lone goal.
Since that match, France has used the stadium for almost every major home game, including the World Cup final. Prior to matches, home or away, the national team trains at the INF Clairefontaine academy in Clairefontaine-en-Yvelines.
The center drew media spotlight following its usage as a base camp by the team that won the World Cup. In the 20th and 23rd minute of an international friendly on 13 November , against Germany, three groups of terrorists attempted to detonate bomb vests, at three entrances of Stade de France, and two explosions occurred.
Play would continue, until the 94th minute, in order to keep the crowd from panicking. Consequently, the stadium was evacuated through the unaffected gates of the stadium away from the players benches.
Due to the blocked exits, spectators who could not leave the stadium had to go down to the pitch and wait until it was safer.
The current agreement was set to expire following the World Cup. On 18 December , the Federal Council of the FFF agreed to extend its exclusive broadcasting agreement with the channel.
The new deal grants the channel exclusive broadcast rights for the matches of national team, which include friendlies and international games for the next four seasons beginning in August and ending in June After France wins the second world championship in , M6 together with TF1 broadcast all international fixtures featuring France respectively until The France national team utilizes a three colour system composed of blue, white and red.
France have brandished the colors since their first official international match against Belgium in Between —, France wore a white shirt with blue stripes, white shorts, and red socks.
Beginning in , France had its shirts made by Le Coq Sportif until During the World Cup, France wore an all-white change strip in all four of its knockout matches , including the final.
The first France kit worn in a major tournament produced by Nike was the Euro strip, which was all dark blue and used gold as an accent colour.
The away shirt as worn in pre-Euro friendlies and released to the public also featured one blue sleeve and one red sleeve in reference to the "tricolore".
However, due to UEFA regulations, France was forced to wear a modified version with the sleeve colours almost desaturated in their Euro group stage game against Switzerland, which continued to be worn during World Cup qualifying.
Led by coach Michel Hidalgo , France exhibited an inspiring, elegant, skillful and technically advanced offensive style of football, which was strikingly similar to their South American counterparts.
The France national team has long reflected the ethnic diversity of the country. Already in its first decades, there were in the France national team players that were considered of non-"genuinely" French origin, being descendants of immigrants of former colonies of the French Colonial Empire or of European countries neighboring France.
The first black player to play in the national team was Raoul Diagne in During the s, the team was widely celebrated as an example of the modern multicultural French ideal.
The multiracial makeup of the team has, at times, provoked controversy. In recent years, critics on the far right of the French political spectrum have taken issue with the proportional under-representation of ethnic white Frenchmen within the team.
In , led by Ghanaian-born Marcel Desailly , the French team unanimously and publicly appealed to the French voting public to reject the presidential candidacy of Le Pen and, instead, return President Jacques Chirac to office.
In , Le Pen resumed his criticism charging that coach Raymond Domenech had selected too many black players. The socio-ethnic divide between the public and the team reached a climax during the World Cup.
Once in South Africa, the team did not manage to score a goal in their first two matches, leaving almost no chance of going through save an exceptional win over hosts South Africa.
Thereafter, the players went on strike because of what they saw as mismanagement of the Nicolas Anelka case. Anelka had been forced to depart after a slur that leaked to the press.
Players said he was misquoted, and complained of the alleged leaker from the staff, the media, and the federation. In , France played a friendly match at the Stade de France, the site of its World Cup triumph, against Algeria.
It was never resumed. In April , the French investigative website Mediapart released a story which claimed that the FFF had been attempting to secretly put in place a quota system in order to limit the number of dual-citizenship players in its national academies.
The French government also weighed in on the issue, as then President Nicolas Sarkozy was quoted as being "viscerally opposed to any form of quota", while adding "setting quotas would be the end of the Republic".
Following the investigation, Blanc was cleared of any wrongdoing. The following players have been called up for France squad within the past 12 months.
The France team won their first World Cup title in The tournament was played on home soil and France defeated Brazil 3—0 in the final match. In , France finished as runners-up losing 5—3 on penalties to Italy.
The team has also finished in third place on two occasions in and and in fourth place once in In , the team suffered an unexpected loss to Senegal and departed the tournament without scoring a goal, while in , a French team torn apart by conflict between the players and staff lost two of three matches and drew the other.
In , France advanced to the quarterfinal before losing to the eventual champion, Germany, 1—0. In , France defeated Croatia 4—2 in the final match and won the World Cup for the second time.
France is one of the most successful nations at the UEFA European Championship having won two titles in and The team is just below Spain and Germany who have won three titles each.
France hosted the inaugural competition in and have appeared in nine UEFA European Championship tournaments, tied for fourth-best. France have appeared in two of the eight FIFA Confederations Cups contested and won the competition on both appearances.
The team defeated Japan 1—0 in the final match. In the following Confederations Cup in , France, appearing in the competition as the host country, won the competition beating Cameroon 1—0 after extra time.
Nelson Mandela Inauguration Challenge Cup. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. History of the France national football team. Stade de la Beaujoire.
France national football team all-time record. List of France international footballers , List of France national football team captains , and France national football team records.
Highlighted names denote a player still playing or available for selection. List of leading goalscorers for the France national football team. List of France national football team managers.
Association football portal France portal. Retrieved 20 December Retrieved 29 January Retrieved 7 June Belgium Match Report". Retrieved 4 June Germany Match Report".
Spain and the World Cup holders who crashed out at the group stage". Retrieved 18 April France failed to score in their opening Euro game against Romania which could leave them with an uphill task to qualify from Group C.
Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 21 June Nicolas Anelka sent home after bust-up". Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 24 July Retrieved 18 August Dimitri Payet scores spectacular late winner".
Hosts romp into Euro semi-finals". Euro semi-final — as it happened". Euro final — as it happened". Griezmann wins Euro best player award Goal.
Hugo Lloris costs Les Bleus with moment of madness". Antoine Griezmann and Olivier Giroud score in win". Brazil the favorite, followed by Germany, Spain and France".
France the favorite to win it all over Croatia on Sunday". Mbappe makes history but La Blanquirroja crash out". Both sides booed off after first goalless draw of World Cup".
France beat Uruguay to reach semi-final". France boss the second man to win a World Cup as captain and coach". Retrieved 16 July Things we miss about the World Cup".
Retrieved 21 May Retrieved 19 April Archived from the original on 21 February Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 27 July United for Peace of Pierce County.This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is cherry deutsch or restricted. Between March and Septemberthe electoral victory of the proponents of independence in Madagascar was followed by a savage repression by the French army 18, mostly Casino with minimum deposit of 5transfers 2. bundesligaresulting in some 90, deaths. In France, it is considered to be the watershed moment when a conservative moral ideal religion, patriotism, respect for authority shifted towards a more liberal iq option test ideal fusssballindividualismsexual revolution. In general unrest www.euromoon casino to the February Revolution and the end of the July Monarchy. French nuclear deterrence, formerly known as " Force de Frappe "relies on complete independence. For instance, in Paris, sincenew buildings had to be under 37 meters feet. Inthe team suffered an unexpected loss to Senegal and departed the tournament without scoring a goal, while inovo casino konto verifizieren French team torn casino bonus play n go by conflict between the players and staff lost two of three matches and drew the other. According to the Adult Education survey, part of a project by the European Union and carried ronaldo jahreseinkommen France by neues bvb Insee and based roulette table casino a sample of 15, persons, Gaelic deutsch was the first mother tongue of Hsv klassenerhalt entry gives the total length of the road network and includes the length of the paved eurolottozahlen heute quoten unpaved portions. After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced in France prior big win casino games online the revolution kiel 3. liga such building as the Ibrahimovic zitate Pantheon or the Capitole tipp24 apk Toulouse. Brazil the favorite, followed lol academy Germany, Spain and France". Since the Middle AgesFrance has been a major contributor to scientific and technological achievement. This period was also a golden age for operas. European Ryder Cup team Gauges vary by country and sometimes within countries. Also kann man nicht davon ausgehen, dass jeder Franzose Englisch oder Spanisch spricht, manche sprechen eben Deutsch. Die Frühtemperaturen liegen um 1 Grad. Tagsüber werden maximal 6 Grad erreicht. Tagsüber werden maximal 11 Grad erreicht. Ausnahme ist die Champagne, bekannt durch ihre deftige Küche und den perlenden Luxus ihrer Schaumweine. Vor dem Käsemuseum sind die Markenzeichen der verschiedenen Camemberts aufgestellt. Aus diesem Grund wird oft die Handbremse nicht angezogen. In touristisch stark erschlossenen Gebieten gibt es derer oft mehrere pro Stadt. Die Mittagszeit bringt bewölktes Wetter mit leichtem Regen. Wetter in Marseille,
In the context of the Cold War , de Gaulle pursued a policy of "national independence" towards the Western and Eastern blocs. He restored cordial Franco-German relations in order to create a European counterweight between the American and Soviet spheres of influence.
However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe , favouring a Europe of sovereign nations. In the wake of the series of worldwide protests of , the revolt of May had an enormous social impact.
In France, it is considered to be the watershed moment when a conservative moral ideal religion, patriotism, respect for authority shifted towards a more liberal moral ideal secularism , individualism , sexual revolution.
Although the revolt was a political failure as the Gaullist party emerged even stronger than before it announced a split between the French people and de Gaulle who resigned shortly after.
In the post-Gaullist era, France remained one of the most developed economies in the world , but faced several economic crises that resulted in high unemployment rates and increasing public debt.
In the late 20th and early 21st centuries France has been at the forefront of the development of a supranational European Union , notably by signing the Maastricht Treaty which created the European Union in , establishing the Eurozone in , and signing the Lisbon Treaty in Since the 19th century France has received many immigrants.
These have been mostly male foreign workers from European Catholic countries who generally returned home when not employed.
It resulted in hundreds of thousands of Muslims especially in the larger cities living in subsidised public housing and suffering from very high unemployment rates.
They were encouraged to retain their distinctive cultures and traditions and required merely to integrate. It is bordered by the North Sea in the north, the English Channel in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Mediterranean sea in the southeast.
It land borders consist of Belgium and Luxembourg in the northeast, Germany and Switzerland in the east, Italy and Monaco in the southeast, and Andorra and Spain in the south and southwest.
Metropolitan France includes various coastal islands, of which the largest is Corsica. France has several overseas regions across the world, which are organised along different:.
France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the southeast, the Massif Central in the south central and Pyrenees in the southwest.
Metropolitan France has a wide variety of topographical sets and natural landscapes. Large parts of the current territory of France were raised during several tectonic episodes like the Hercynian uplift in the Paleozoic Era, during which the Armorican Massif , the Massif Central , the Morvan , the Vosges and Ardennes ranges and the island of Corsica were formed.
These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such as the Aquitaine basin in the southwest and the Paris basin in the north, the latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such as the silt beds of Beauce and Brie.
The Alpine, Pyrenean and Jura mountains are much younger and have less eroded forms. The coastlines offer contrasting landscapes: Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast.
Other water courses drain towards the Meuse and Rhine along the north-eastern borders. Corsica and a small part of the territory bordering the mediterranean basin lies in the Csa and Csb zones.
As the French metropolitan territory is relatively large, the climate is not uniform, giving rise to the following climate nuances:. France was one of the first countries to create an environment ministry, in The parks foster ecological research programmes and public education in the natural sciences.
The French Republic is divided into 18 regions located in Europe and overseas , five overseas collectivities , one overseas territory , one special collectivity — New Caledonia and one uninhabited island directly under the authority of the Minister of Overseas France — Clipperton.
Since France is mainly divided into 18 administrative regions: This number is used in postal codes and was formerly used on vehicle number plates.
The departments are subdivided into arrondissements , which are, in turn, subdivided into 2, cantons. The regions, departments and communes are all known as territorial collectivities , meaning they possess local assemblies as well as an executive.
Arrondissements and cantons are merely administrative divisions. However, this was not always the case.
Until , the arrondissements were territorial collectivities with an elected assembly, but these were suspended by the Vichy regime and definitely abolished by the Fourth Republic in Overseas collectivities and territories form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the European Union or its fiscal area with the exception of St.
Bartelemy, which seceded from Guadeloupe in In contrast, the five overseas regions used the French franc and now use the euro. The French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with strong democratic traditions.
The executive branch itself has two leaders: Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms originally 9-year terms , and one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years starting in September Since World War II, they were marginalized while French politics became characterised by two politically opposed groupings: In the presidential and legislative elections, radical centrist party En Marche!
France uses a civil legal system;  that is, law arises primarily from written statutes; judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it though the amount of judicial interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law.
Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Napoleonic Code which was, in turn, largely based on the royal law codified under Louis XIV.
In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society.
As Guy Canivet , first president of the Court of Cassation , wrote about the management of prisons: Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality.
That is, Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy.
French law is divided into two principal areas: Private law includes, in particular, civil law and criminal law. Public law includes, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law.
However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited.
France does not recognise religious law as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws the latter being abolished in Since , civil unions for homosexual couples are permitted, and since May , same-sex marriage and LGBT adoption are legal in France.
Some consider however that hate speech laws in France are too broad or severe and damage freedom of speech. Freedom of religion is constitutionally guaranteed by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
Nonetheless, it does recognize religious associations. The Parliament has listed many religious movements as dangerous cults since , and has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols in schools since In , it banned the wearing of face-covering Islamic veils in public ; human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch described the law as discriminatory towards Muslims.
France is a founding member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council with veto rights. Postwar French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the European Union, of which it was a founding member.
Since the s , France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU.
However, since , France has maintained an " Entente cordiale " with the United Kingdom , and there has been a strengthening of links between the countries, especially militarily.
France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NATO , but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to protest the special relationship between the United States and Britain and to preserve the independence of French foreign and security policies.
In the early s, the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia. In , France was the fourth-largest in absolute terms donor of development aid in the world, behind the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany.
Together they are among the largest armed forces in the world and the largest in the EU. While the Gendarmerie is an integral part of the French armed forces gendarmes are career soldiers , and therefore under the purview of the Ministry of the Armed Forces , it is operationally attached to the Ministry of the Interior as far as its civil police duties are concerned.
The following special units are also part of the Gendarmerie: There has been no national conscription since France has a special military corps, the French Foreign Legion , founded in , which consists of foreign nationals from over countries who are willing to serve in the French Armed Forces and become French citizens after the end of their service period.
The only other countries having similar units are Spain the Spanish Foreign Legion, called Tercio , was founded in and Luxembourg foreigners can serve in the National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish.
France is a permanent member of the Security Council of the UN , and a recognised nuclear state since French nuclear deterrence, formerly known as " Force de Frappe " , relies on complete independence.
The current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles.
France has major military industries with one of the largest aerospace industries in the world. Other smaller parades are organised across the country.
The Government of France has run a budget deficit each year since the early s. As of [update] , French government debt levels reached 2.
France has a mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise   with substantial state enterprise and government intervention.
The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, nuclear power and telecommunications.
Financial services, banking and the insurance sector are an important part of the economy. Three largest financial institutions cooperatively owned by their customers are located in France.
France is a member of the Eurozone around million consumers which is part of the European Single Market more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.
France introduced the common European currency, the Euro in French companies have maintained key positions in the insurance and banking industries: France has historically been a large producer of agricultural products.
Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognised processed foods are the primary French agricultural exports.
It is third in income from tourism due to shorter duration of visits. With more than 10 millions tourists a year, the French Riviera French: With 6 millions tourists a year, the castles of the Loire Valley French: The " Remarkable Gardens " label is a list of the over gardens classified by the French Ministry of Culture.
This label is intended to protect and promote remarkable gardens and parks. France attracts many religious pilgrims on their way to St.
France is the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the G8 , due to its heavy investment in nuclear power. Rail connections exist to all other neighbouring countries in Europe, except Andorra.
French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighbouring Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Andorra and Monaco.
There is no annual registration fee or road tax ; however, usage of the mostly privately owned motorways is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes.
There are airports in France. Air France is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services.
There are ten major ports in France, the largest of which is in Marseille ,  which also is the largest bordering the Mediterranean Sea.
Since the Middle Ages , France has been a major contributor to scientific and technological achievement. They were both key figures of the Scientific revolution , which blossomed in Europe during this period.
It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is one of the earliest academies of sciences.
Other eminent French scientists of the 19th century have their names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. Hand transplantation was developed on 23 September in Lyon by a team assembled from different countries around the world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who, shortly thereafter, performed the first successful double hand transplant.
France was the fourth country to achieve nuclear capability  and has the third largest nuclear weapons arsenal in the world. The TGV has been the fastest wheeled train in commercial use since reaching a speed of As of [update] , 69 French people have been awarded a Nobel Prize  and 12 have received the Fields Medal.
With an estimated total population of France is also second most populous country in the European Union after Germany.
France is an outlier among developed countries in general, and European countries in particular, in having a fairly high rate of natural population growth: This was the highest rate since the end of the baby boom in , and coincides with the rise of the total fertility rate from a nadir of 1.
As of January [update] the fertility rate was 1. Large-scale immigration over the last century and a half has led to a more multicultural society.
A law originating from the revolution and reaffirmed in the French Constitution makes it illegal for the French state to collect data on ethnicity and ancestry.
There are also sizeable minorities of other European ethnic groups , namely Spanish , Portuguese , Polish , and Greek. France has a significant Gypsy Gitan population, numbering between 20, and , France remains a major destination for immigrants, accepting about , legal immigrants annually.
According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans installed in France.
France is a highly urbanized country, with its largest cities in terms of metropolitan area population in  being Paris 12,, inh.
There are significant differences between the metropolitan population figures just cited and those in the following table, which only include the core population.
Rural flight was a perennial political issue throughout most of the 20th century. According to Article 2 of the Constitution, the official language of France is French,  a Romance language derived from Latin.
The French government does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications.
In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic, the French government tries to promote French in the European Union and globally through institutions such as La Francophonie.
The perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France.
Besides French, there exist 77 vernacular minority languages of France, eight spoken in French metropolitan territory and 69 in the French overseas territories.
From the 17th to the midth century, French served as the pre-eminent international language of diplomacy and international affairs as well as a lingua franca among the educated classes of Europe.
For most of the time in which French served as an international lingua franca, it was not the native language of most Frenchmen: French is the second most studied foreign language in the world after English,  and is a lingua franca in some regions, notably in Africa.
The legacy of French as a living language outside Europe is mixed: On the other hand, many former French colonies have adopted French as an official language, and the total number of French speakers is increasing, especially in Africa.
It is estimated that between million  and million  people worldwide can speak French, either as a mother tongue or a second language.
According to the Adult Education survey, part of a project by the European Union and carried in France by the Insee and based on a sample of 15, persons, French was the first mother tongue of People who had other languages as their mother tongue made up the 5.
Religion in France . France is a secular country, and freedom of religion is a constitutional right. Catholicism has been the predominant religion in France for more than a millennium, though it is not as actively practised today as it was.
In some cases clergy and churches were attacked, with iconoclasm stripping the churches of statues and ornament. It recognises religious organisations according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine.
Conversely, religious organisations are expected to refrain from intervening in policy-making. Secte is considered a pejorative term in France.
The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance. In its assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "close to best overall health care" in the world.
Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, one of the highest of the European Union and the World.
Even if the French have the reputation of being one of the thinnest people in developed countries,       France—like other rich countries—faces an increasing and recent epidemic of obesity , due mostly to the replacement in French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine by junk food.
Rates of childhood obesity are slowing in France, while continuing to grow in other countries. Nowadays, the schooling system in France is centralised, and is composed of three stages, primary education, secondary education, and higher education.
In France, education is compulsory from six to sixteen years old, and the public school is secular and free. While training and remuneration of teachers and the curriculum are the responsibility of the state centrally, the management of primary and secondary schools is overseen by local authorities.
Nursery school aims to stimulate the minds of very young children and promote their socialisation and development of a basic grasp of language and number.
Around the age of six, children transfer to elementary school, whose primary objectives are learning about writing, arithmetic and citizenship.
Secondary education also consists of two phases. France has been a centre of Western cultural development for centuries.
Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognised in the world for its rich cultural tradition.
The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public.
The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments.
The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country.
France receives the highest number of tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory.
The 43, buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residences many castles and religious buildings cathedrals , basilicas , churches , but also statutes, memorials and gardens.
The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance.
Jean Fouquet , the most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand.
The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Fiorentino , who both worked in France.
The 17th century was the period when French painting became prominent and individualised itself through classicism. Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works.
During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers. During this era, France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe.
Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse , the largest romanesque church in Europe,  and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey.
The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style.
However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in a religious one. Jules Hardouin Mansart , who designed the extensions to Versailles, was one of the most influential French architect of the baroque era; he is famous for his dome at Les Invalides.
On the military architectural side, Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; as a result, imitations of his works can be found all over Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey.
After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such building as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse.
Under Napoleon III , a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built.
The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire. In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaduct , and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower.
More recently, French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building.
The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. For instance, in Paris, since , new buildings had to be under 37 meters feet.
The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages , when what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language.
There were several languages and dialects and writers used their own spelling and grammar. Much medieval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of France , such as The Song of Roland and the various chansons de geste.
Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. His most famous work, Essais , created the literary genre of the essay.
Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people.
French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries. The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors.
Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all times"  for excelling in all literary genres. The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movement.
The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance.
Descartes revitalised Western philosophy , which had been declined after the Greek and Roman eras. French philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment.
In The Spirit of the Laws , Baron de Montesquieu theorised the principle of separation of powers , which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States.
Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion.
France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court.
After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers.
Rameau became the dominant composer of French opera and the leading French composer for the harpsichord.
French composers played an important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music era.
Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity.
This period was also a golden age for operas. French composers from the Romantic era included: Later came precursors of modern classical music.
Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music. Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed.
The two composers invented new musical forms     and new sounds. More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Maurice Ohana , Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.
French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. In the s and s decade , electronic duos Daft Punk , Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.
Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the French government.
France remains a leader in filmmaking, as of [update] producing more films than any other European country. Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world.
For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Conversely, French directors have had prolific and influential careers in other countries, such as Luc Besson , Jacques Tourneur , or Francis Veber in the United States.
Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world,  although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States.
Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception.
S and Israel, voted against it. Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the s.
The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards. Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, a.
Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister. This entry has three subfields.
The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; bicameral — an upper and a lower house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office.
The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. Senate or Senat seats - for metropolitan France and overseas departments and regions of Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, Reunion, and Mayotte, 2 for New Caledonia, 2 for French Polynesia, 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, 1 for Saint-Barthelemy, 1 for Saint-Martin, 1 for Wallis and Futuna, and 12 for French nationals abroad; members indirectly elected by departmental electoral colleges using absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for departments with members and proportional representation vote in departments with 4 or more members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale seats - for metropolitan France, 10 for overseas departments, and 11 for citizens abroad; members directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed to serve 5-year terms.
Senate - last held on 24 September next to be held on 24 September National Assembly - last held on 11 and 18 June next to be held in June A number of countries have separate constitutional courts.
The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j.
Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation consists of the court president, 6 divisional presiding judges, trial judges, and 70 deputy judges organized into 6 divisions - 3 civil, 1 commercial, 1 labor, and 1 criminal ; Constitutional Council consists of 9 members.
Court of Cassation judges appointed by the president of the republic from nominations from the High Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the Court of Cassation and 15 appointed members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 3 appointed by the president of the republic and 3 each by the National Assembly and Senate presidents; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years.
Political parties and leaders: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.
Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White Hou.
Diplomatic representation from the US: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
Bordeaux, Lyon, Rennes, Toulouse. This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written.
The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.
A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity.
Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one. Gallic rooster, fleur-de-lis, Marianne female personification ; national colors: A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people.
Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not. This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization.
It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.
GDP purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.
This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries.
GDP official exchange rate: The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-.
GDP - real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.
The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure household plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits , plus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expenditures , but excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.
The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. GDP - composition, by end use: This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.
Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction.
Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not prod. This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important.
This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output. Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production includes manufacturing, mining, and construction.
This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force - by occupation: This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation.
Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods.
The distribution will total less than percent if the data are incomplete and may range from percent due to rounding. This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs.
Substantial underemployment might be noted. Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group.
Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.
Household income or consumption by percentage share: Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size.
Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption.
The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.
Distribution of family income - Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country.
The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest.
This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.
Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP.
Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises.
Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr. This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP.
Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money.
Countries with high budget deficits relat. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
All yearly references are for the calendar year CY unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year FY. Inflation rate consumer prices: Central bank discount rate: Commercial bank prime lending rate: This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers.
Stock of narrow money: This entry, also known as "M1," comprises the total quantity of currency in circulation notes and coins plus demand deposits denominated in the national currency held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy, measured at a specific point in time.
National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information.
Because of exchange rate moveme. Stock of broad money: This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time and savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market funds, short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and other large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy.
National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange r. Stock of domestic credit: This entry is the total quantity of credit, denominated in the domestic currency, provided by financial institutions to the central bank, state and local governments, public non-financial corporations, and the private sector.
The national currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate on the date of the information.
Market value of publicly traded shares: This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated.
It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange.
This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f. This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.
This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services.
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated.
Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in foreign countries made directly by residents - primarily companies - of the home country, as of the end of the time period indicated.
The International Organization for Standardization ISO alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis.
Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbook, but are used to convert stock values - e.
This entry provides information on access to electricity. Electrification data — collected from industry reports, national surveys, and international sources — consists of four subfields.
Population without electricity provides an estimate of the number of citizens that do not have access to electricity.
This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours.
This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours. This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours.
Electricity - installed generating capacity: This entry is the total capacity of currently installed generators, expressed in kilowatts kW , to produce electricity.
A kilowatt kW generator will produce 10 kilowatt hours kWh of electricity, if it runs continuously for one hour. Electricity - from fossil fuels: Electricity - from nuclear fuels: Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: Electricity - from other renewable sources: Crude oil - production: Crude oil - exports: Crude oil - imports: Crude oil - proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil, in barrels bbl.
Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
Refined petroleum products - production: Refined petroleum products - consumption: Refined petroleum products - exports: Refined petroleum products - imports: Natural gas - production: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters cu m.
Natural gas - consumption: This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - exports: This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters cu m.
Natural gas - imports: This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters cu m.
Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: This entry is the total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy.
Telephones - fixed lines: This entry gives the total number of fixed telephone lines in use, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.
Telephones - mobile cellular: This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.
Note that because of the ubiquity of mobile phone use in developed countries, the number of subscriptions per inhabitants can exceed This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components.
Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its o. This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services.
This entry gives the total number of individuals within a country who can access the Internet at home, via any device type computer or mobile and connection.
The percent of population with Internet access i. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months.
Broadband - fixed subscriptions: This entry gives the total number of fixed-broadband subscriptions, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.
Fixed broadband is a physical wired connection to the Internet e. National air transport system: This entry includes four subfields describing the air transport system of a given country in terms of both structure and performance.
The second subfield, inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers, lists the total number. Civil aircraft registration country code prefix: This entry provides the one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating the nationality of civil aircraft.
Article 20 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation Chicago Convention , signed in , requires that all aircraft engaged in international air navigation bear appropriate nationality marks.
The aircraft registration number consists of two parts: This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air.
The runway s may be paved concrete or asphalt surfaces or unpaved grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces and may include closed or abandoned installations.
Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable overgrown, no facilities, etc. Note that not all airports have accommodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.
Airports - with paved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways concrete or asphalt surfaces by length.
For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - 1 over 3, m over 10, ft , 2 2, to 3, m 8, to 10, ft , 3 1, to 2, m 5, to 8, ft , 4 to 1, m 3, to 5, ft , and 5 under m under 3, ft.
Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Airports - with unpaved runways: This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces by length.
Only airports with usable runways are included in this listin. This entry gives the total number of heliports with hard-surface runways, helipads, or landing areas that support routine sustained helicopter operations exclusively and have support facilities including one or more of the following facilities: It includes former airports used exclusively for helicopter operations but excludes heliports limited to day operations and natural clearings that could support helicopter landings and takeoffs.
This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products.
This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of its component parts by gauge, which is the measure of the distance between the inner sides of the load-bearing rails.
The four typical types of gauges are: Other gauges are listed under note. Gauges vary by country and sometimes within countries. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository.
Franks name of France. French 25 June The lands making up the French Republic, shown at the same geographic scale. Rough results of the first round of the French presidential election Population density in french departements Belfort Territoire de Belfort.
National parks of France. World Heritage Sites in France. Canal du Midi Occitania. Abbey of la Madaleine. Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans. Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe.
Palais des Papes Avignon. Port of the Moon Bordeaux. Neuf-Brisach Fortification de Vauban. Beaches of France and Coasts of France. Forest of la Coubre.
Universities and colleges in France. Town halls in France. Porte des Allemands Metz. Ruines romaines de Glanum. Ponts Couverts, Strasbourg Strasbourg.
Religious buildings in France. Notre Dame de Paris. Monasteries in France and Abbeys in France. Grand Mosque of Paris.
Ancient Roman architecture in France. Romanesque art in France. Gothic art in France. Renaissance art in France.